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Reisides Inglismaalt Hiinasse 1810

Reisides Inglismaalt Hiinasse 1810


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Tahaksin teada, milline oleks olnud 1810. aastal kõige tavalisem marsruut Inglismaalt Hiinasse Cantoni ja kui kaua teekond oleks kestnud.


Hiina kaubateed olid selleks ajaks juba paika pandud, nii et kaubalaev, tavaliselt üks Ida -Indiamanist, mis vedas piisavalt varustust pika reisi jaoks, sõidaks „ümber sarve“ või ümber Hea Lootuse neeme peatuste peal. Nad peatusid sageli Indias, Austraalias või Sandwichi saartel (Hawaii) ja suundusid seejärel Hiinasse.

Leidsin ühe laeva, mille nimi oli juhuslik Kanton, millel on mõned registreeritud reisid Inglismaalt Hiinasse, see oli 1810. aastal:

KIKi reis nr 8 (1810–1811) Kapten George Gray omandas 22. märtsil 1810 märgikirja. 5. Ta sõitis Portsmouthist 28. aprill, suundub Hiina poole. Canton oli Penangis 5. septembril ja Malaka 26. septembril, enne kui ta Whampoasse jõudis 10. detsember.

Niisiis, see on umbes 4-6 kuu pikkune reis, sõltuvalt tuultest ja peatustest


Reisimine Inglismaalt Hiinasse 1810 - ajalugu


Väliskaubanduse tähtsus pärast revolutsiooni

Maailm, kuhu endised Briti kolooniad sisenesid taasiseseisvunud Ameerika Ühendriikidena, oli riik, kus riigid kontrollisid hoolikalt oma sise- ja rahvusvahelist majandust. Euroopa riigid olid merkantilismi praktiseerinud alates 16. sajandist, sest igaüks neist töötas selle nimel, et saada võimsamaks kui tema naabrid ja konkurendid. Jõuallikas oli jõukus valitsuse kassas ja võimalikult suure rikkuse hõivamise kindlustamiseks sai rahvas/kuningriik üsna suletud kaubandusvõrgustiku keskuseks, mis hõlmas kolooniaid, mis pakkusid toorainet.

Ameerika Briti kolooniate majandus revolutsiooni ajal oli kaevandav. Looduslikud materjalid nagu saematerjal, kala, rumm koristati ja nendega kaubeldi Briti impeeriumis. Tootmine ja muu kaubandus oli 1651. aasta navigatsiooniseaduse ja järgnevate õigusaktidega keelatud. Põhja -Ameerika Briti koloniaalid pidid seega ostma Aasia kaupu Inglismaa kaudu, mitte tegelema iseseisva Aasia kaubandusega. Üks koloniaalrahutuste põhjusi oli ameeriklaste väljaarvamine sellest, mida kolooniates peeti väga tulusaks Hiina kaubanduseks.

Nõudlus Hiina toodete ja tee, portselani, siidi ja nankeen (jäme, tugev puuvillane riie) järele jätkus ka pärast revolutsiooni. Olles näinud, et britid teenisid kaubandusest suurt kasumit, kui kolooniatel ei võimaldatud Hiinaga otsekaubandust, soovisid ameeriklased seda kasumit endale kindlustada. Vajadus pakkuda tööd inimestele, kelle elatusvahendid olid sõltunud merest, vajadus jätkata tööstuskaupade importimist, mida Ameerika allikatest veel ei olnud, ning vajadus arendada kapitali, stimuleeris uut tüüpi väliskaubanduse arengut. Otsekaubandus Hiinaga oli selle kaubanduse osa. Kuna väliskaubanduse maht oli vabariigi algusaastatel suhteliselt väike, mängis kaubandus Hiinaga olulist rolli.

Philadelphia, New Yorgi, Bostoni ja Salemi laevad olid uue Hiina kaubanduses kõige aktiivsemad. Vahetu raskus, millega kõik ettevõtjad silmitsi seisid, oli leida Hiinas müüdavaid kaupu, et kompenseerida Ameerika ostud Hiinas, mille eest maksti enamasti Ameerikast Hiinasse saadetud hõbeda eest. Nende erinevate Ameerika sadamate kauplejad arveldasid erinevaid kaupu ja järgisid nende kaupade hankimiseks erinevaid teid Hiinasse. Üldiselt tegelesid kõik kauplejad kaupade jadakaubandusega, ostes ja müües kõigis külastatud sadamates.

Philadelphia kaupmehed saatsid esmalt oma laevad üle Atlandi ookeani Euroopasse kaupa ostma ja müüma. Seejärel kauplesid nad ümber Aafrika ja üle India ookeani Hiinasse. Umbes 1810. aastal leidsid Philadelphia kaupmehed Smyrnast (Türgi) oopiumi allika ja hakkasid seda kaupa Hiinasse tarnima. Siiski jätkasid nad ka muu kauba saatmist. Tundub, et New Yorgi laevad on kasutanud laia valikut kaubandusstrateegiaid ja 19. sajandi keskel sai New Yorgist Hiina kaubandusega seotud peamine sadam.

Aastaks 1830 ja#8217 olid Ameerika Ühendriikide ja Hiina vahel hästi välja kujunenud kaubateed ning idapoolkera sadamate nimed, mis olid kunagi eksootilised ja salapärased, hakkasid ameeriklastele üha enam tuttavaks kui Ameerika Ühendriikide majandusele olulised kohad. .

Tee oli ameeriklaste tähtsaim imporditud kaup Hiinast 19. sajandi lõpuks. Esialgu koosnes Ameerika import Hiinast suuresti riidest (nankeen ja siid) ning teest. Tee sai domineerivaks kaubaks, mis kasvas ligikaudu 36% -lt kogu impordist Hiinast 1822. aastal 65% -le 1860. aastal.

Tekstiili import vähenes 1830ndatel. Siidi import vähenes, kuigi põhjus on ebakindel. Kui puuvillase tekstiilitootmine arenes 1820. aastatel ja kodumaise riide kvaliteet tõusis ning kulud vähenesid, lõpetas USA nankeenide importimise ja hakkas puuvillast riiet Hiinasse eksportima. Masinaga kedratud riie ei olnud võrreldava kvaliteediga kodust tsentrifuugitud, käsitsi kootud nankeeniga, mida hiinlased jätkasid tööriiete jaoks. Alles 19. sajandi keskpaigast kuni lõpuni andis lääneriikidest toodetud riie võrreldava hinna eest töökindluse, nagu seda tegi Hiina toodetud riie. Sel ajal hakati Hiinasse importima üha suuremas koguses lääne riideid. 19. sajandi viimaseks veerandiks moodustasid puuvillane riie ja puuvillane lõng märkimisväärse osa Ameerika kogu ekspordist Hiinasse.

Ameeriklased pidasid ženšenni esialgu kaubaks, mis finantseeriks kaubandust Hiinaga. See turg osutus kiiresti väga kõikuvaks. Ka karusnahad pidasid lubadusi, kuid ka see turg osutus väljakannatamatuks. Ilma kaubata, mis pidevalt Hiinas turgu leidis, pidid ameeriklased kaubanduse rahastamiseks kasutama liike (metalli ja münte). Ilma kulla või hõbeda allikata pidid ameeriklased hankima liike mujalt. Nad tegid seda, tegeledes kolmnurkse kaubandusega. Kaupu saadeti Euroopasse, Euroopa sadamate vahel või Lõuna -Ameerikasse ja müüdi Mehhiko dollarite eest. Seejärel saadeti liik Hiinasse teed ostma. 1830. aastateks finantseeriti märkimisväärne osa kaubandusest Londoni pankade poolt Hiinas asuvate esindajate kaudu väljastatud krediidiga.

Mõned ameeriklased pöördusid Hiina kaubanduse rahastamiseks ka oopiumi poole. India tootis kõrgeima kvaliteediga oopiumi, kuid Briti Ida -India ettevõte omas Indias oopiumi tootmise monopoli kuni aastani 1831. Türgi tootis oopiumi madalama kvaliteediga ja palju väiksemas mahus kui India. Ameeriklased alustasid Smirnast oopiumi saatmist 1805. aastaks. Türgi oopium moodustas vaid väikese osa kogu Hiinasse imporditud oopiumist. Oopiumist sai oluline kaup Ameerika kaubanduses Hiinaga alles 1830ndatel, kui see moodustas umbes 1/4 kogu ameeriklaste Hiinas müüdud kogust. Ameeriklaste imporditud oopium ei ületanud kunagi 10% kogu Hiinasse imporditud oopiumist.

Hoolimata kõigist neist katsetest leida Hiinast imporditud kaupade maksumust tasakaalustav kaup peale liigide, ei suutnud ameeriklased seda leida.

Et mõista, miks läänlastel oli raske leida kaupu, mida hiinlased järjekindlalt osta tahtsid, tuleb vaadata nii majandust kui ka ideid kaubanduse kohta. Hiina majandus oli 18. sajandi lõpus üsna hästi arenenud. Kaupa, mida ei saanud kohapeal toota, tarniti teistest Hiina allikatest. Hiina impeeriumi suurus, mitmekesisus ja integreeritusaste pakkusid selle elanikele vajadusi ja eliidile palju luksust. Kaup, mida lääs algselt hiinlastele pakkus, oli luksuskaup, mille turg oli peagi ülepakutud. Sel ajal elas sellel maal üle 90% Hiina elanikkonnast ja enamik neist elas käest suhu.

Lääs tahtis Hiina toodetud teed ja uskus, et tal on õigus selle vastu kaubelda. Kaubandust peeti rahvusliku ja isikliku rikkuse laiendamise vahendiks, seega peeti loomulikuks, et kõik riigid osalevad kaubanduses.

Hiinlastel seevastu oli kaubanduse suhtes teoreetiline põlgus. Konfutsianistliku mõtteviisi kohaselt oli ühiskond jagatud nelja sotsiaalsesse klassi, mis jagunesid kõrgelt madalale ja#8212 teadlastele, talupoegadele, käsitöölistele ja kaupmeestele. Esimesed kolm gruppi nägid midagi tootvat, kaupmehed aga kasumit teenimata. Sellegipoolest arenes kaubandus Hiinas suurel määral, kuid see ei olnud seadusega kaitstud ja allus alati valitsuse nõudmistele “ panustamiseks.

Traditsiooniline Hiina osales oma ajaloo jooksul ka mõningates väliskaubandustes, kuid keiser hindas seda laekumisteks vastutasuks osariikide või hõimude poolt, kes tunnistasid Hiina ülimuslikkust. Need ideed kuulusid 18. sajandi lõpus lääne lähenedes suuresti Hiina mõtteviisi juurde ja jäid enamiku hiinlaste jaoks muutumatuks 20. sajandiks.

Arvestades neid kahte väga erinevat lähenemist ja ideid kaubanduse kohta, on lihtne mõista, miks konfliktid arenesid.

Ameerika revolutsioonile järgnenud aastatel oli laevade jaoks kõige olulisem kiirus. Purjelaevad kippusid olema väikesed ja kiired, et nad saaksid edestada ja edestada Briti, Prantsuse ja piraatlaevu, mis püüdsid Ameerika laevu vallutada. Laev, nagu Hiina keisrinna (esimene Ameerika laev, mis Hiinas kauples), oli vaid kuuskümmend viis jalga pikk ja kakskümmend viis meetrit lai. Seda ruumi jagasid eluruumid, laeva varustus, ballast ja last. Need väikesed alused tegid ümbermaailmareisi lastiga, mis oli samaväärne kahe või kolme raudteevaguniga. Suurem purjelaev aastatel 1820 ’ ja 1830 ’s võis vedada 400–500 tonni kaupa, mis vastab umbes kaheksale raudteevagunile, kuid siiski väga vähe võrreldes tänapäevaste konteinerlaevadega, mis võivad kanda 50 000 tonni.

Purjelaevad ehitati suuremaks läbi 1830., 40. ja 50. aastate, kuna pikemad kaubateed muutusid rutiinseks ja piraatide oht vähenes. Aastatel 1841–1860 domineerisid Aasia -ga kauplemisel ekstreemsed lõikurid ja#8221. Need laevad olid suured, vedades Ameerikas ja Euroopas tarbijatele tohutuid, tulusaid veoseid teed, vürtse, tekstiili ja portselanist nõusid. 1860. aastatel, kui USA oli kodusõjas, hakkasid ookeanikaubandusteed domineerima Euroopas toodetud aurujõul töötavad laevad.

Kodusõjale eelnenud aastakümnetel ja USA ajal keskendusid USA suuresti sisepoliitikale ja sektsioonilisusele, mitte välispoliitikale. Kuid ka sel ajal hakkasid ameeriklased, kes olid suurema osa oma ajaloost veetnud idarannikule ja Euroopale, hakanud nägema lääneranniku arendamise ja Kaug -Idasse suunduvate laevateede säilitamise strateegilist ja majanduslikku tähtsust.

1850. aastate lõpus ja#8217 -ndatel USA ja Hiina kaubandus Hiinaga vähenes. Kiiresti industrialiseeruvate põhjaosariikide tehastes toodetud kodumaised tooted asendasid importi: puuvill asendas nankeen, Ameerika keraamikatehased kordasid portselanil Hiina kujundust ja Hiina teed asendas Kesk- ja Lõuna -Ameerikast imporditud kohv.

Kodusõda kulutas Ameerika majanduse ressursse. Vahepeal tõusid Euroopa laevatehased auruga töötavate laevade valmistamisel kiiresti edasi, mis hakkasid kiiresti ookeani kaubateed domineerima. USA jõudis selles vallas Euroopale alles 1880. ja 1890. aastatel, selleks ajaks olid Inglismaa, Hispaania, Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa ja Venemaa kõik Hiina kaubanduses kindla koha saanud.

Hoolimata suurest kasumist, mida Hiina kaubandusest oli võimalik saada, pakkus Euroopa Ameerika kaupade jaoks vastuvõtlikumat turgu ja jäi Ameerika väliskaubanduse peamiseks fookuseks. Kui USA väliskaubandus 19. sajandi jooksul laienes, kasvas kaubavahetus Euroopaga tohutult, samas kui Hiina kaubandus jäi üsna samaks ja muutus veelgi väiksemaks protsendiks kogu USA väliskaubandusest.

Ameerika huvid Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas laienesid aga jätkuvalt. California, Oregon ja Washington said Ameerika Ühendriikide osaks. Ameerika misjonärid ja seejärel ärimehed asusid Hawaii saartele ja tegid edukalt lobitööd Ameerika valitsemise eest. Kui Hispaania laevastiku lüüasaamine Manilas 1898. aastal andis võimaluse Filipiinide kontrolli alla saada, tegi Ameerika äri seal lobitööd Ameerika valitsemise nimel. Nad uskusid, et Ameerika kohalolek Filipiinidel aitaks Ameerika ärimeestel konkureerida Hiinas, kus välisriigid raiusid üha enam välja majandusliku domineerimise alasid (mõjusfäärid). USA valitsusele avaldatud surve avaldas lõpuks 1899. aastal avatud uste poliitika.

Hiina taasavamisel kaubandusega 20. sajandi viimasel veerandil on Ameerika ärimehed taas lähenenud Hiinale kui suure potentsiaaliga turule. Seekord ei ole Hiina kaubandusele kahjulik, kuid kaks tegurit - vähese sissetulekuga elanikkond ja valitsus, mis kaitseb oma majanduse arengut - on toonud taas kaasa märkimisväärse kaubandusbilansi tasakaalustamatuse ja küsimused, kuidas sellega toime tulla selle teemaga.

Autoriõigus ja koopia 2006. Illinoisi ülikooli hoolekogu


Valmistatud nooleotsad

Reiside vahel peatusid nad kolonel Harrisoni esivanemate territooriumil Brandesburton Hallis ja rändasid vabalt ümbruskonnas ringi.

Nad veetsid oma vaba aja Ida -Yorkshire'i külas ringi jalutades ning jahtisid ümbritsevas pargis linde ja küülikuid.

Tundub, et pügmeedest sai piirkonnas tuttav vaatepilt.

Nad tegid kohalike seppade juures isegi nooleotsi ja ühinesid pühapäevakooli laulmisega, ütles Mason.

Grupp kasutas suhtlemiseks katkise inglise ja viipekeele kombinatsiooni.

Kolonel Harrison kirjutas raamatu oma kogemustest Ituri metsa pügmeede seas ja selgitas selles, kuidas ta kinnitas, et reisirühm on vabatahtlik, keda koheldakse hästi ja naaseb oma kodudesse.

Ja nii jõudsid 22-aastane "juht" Bokane ja "printsess" Quarke, 22 koos Mogonga, 18, Masutiminga, 22, Matuka, 23 ja Amurape, vanim 31-aastane, Egiptuse kaudu 1905. aasta juunis Londonisse .

Kõik ei soovinud parteid maale tuua nii kolonelina kui kolonel.

Inimõiguste organisatsioon Aborigines ' Protection Society tegi ilmselt lobitööd välisministeeriumile, lootes külastuse peatada, kuid kolonel Harrison suutis selle rühma riiki tuua, kuna nad ei olnud Inglise kodanikud.

1837. aastal asutatud seltsi eesmärk oli kaitsta põlisrahvaste õigusi. See ühines orjusvastase seltsiga 1909.


Treenerid Rosamond Bayne-Powelli raamatust „Reisijad kaheksateistkümnenda sajandi Inglismaal”

Reisimise meetodid
Olles jõudnud Inglise sadamasse, oli kõigi reisijate eesmärk lahkuda sellest võimalikult kiiresti. Võimalusi oli mitu. Ülemast klassist pärit inglased sõitsid tavaliselt oma vagunitega, mida tõmbasid nende enda hobused, või kui lähetus oli kehtestatud, postihobustega. Rikas välismaalane võttis mõnikord selle reisimisviisi kasutusele. Krahv Kielmansegg palkas Londonis maismaa ja hobused, et tuur läbi Inglismaa. Selle eest pidi ta maksma 27s. päeval, kuid enne Oxfordi jõudmist olid teed nii halvaks läinud, et kutsar nõudis tagasipööramist. Kuna krahv oli välismaalane ja ei suutnud toime tulla tõrksate inglastega, palkas ta alandlikult kaks postitooli ja suundus oma seltskonnaga ülikoolilinna, sulased sõitsid selja taga.

Sakslane Sophie de la Roche, hoolimata oma nimest, sai meeldivama kogemuse. Ta võttis tööle ka Londonis, "ilus vanker kolmele, mille joonistasid kaks hobust ja sõbralik kutsar" 15 eests. päev, kuid siis ei tundunud Sophiega kunagi midagi väsitavat juhtuvat. Ta oli täis Inglismaa kiitust ja ilmselt polnud kellelgi südant teda pettuda.

Seda reisimisviisi ei võtnud tavaliselt kasutusele need, kes olid just mandrilt saabunud. See oli väga kallis ja nõudis põhjalikumat inglise keele ja praeguse treenerite slängi tundmist, kui uustulnukatel üldiselt oli.

Vastupidav inglane reisis sageli hobusega. See oli mõnus ja iseseisev viis suvel minna ja kui ilm oli hea. Halbu teid ja peenraid laike saaks sageli vältida, kui lõigata põlde või nõmme, näha riiki oma vabal ajal ja säästa raha busside rentimiseks. Teisest küljest võisid maanteed rünnata üksi sõitvat meest. Ta peab oskama keelt ja teid, muidu võib ta oma teelt kaugele minna ja sattuda rabasse. Ta oleks kohustatud saatma kogu vara, mida ta ei saanud kahe sadulakotti kokku suruda, lavavaguni või mere ääres, riskides seda enam mitte kunagi näha.

Võimalik, et see oli süvenemine inglise ratsutamisse. Halbade teede ja raevuka sõidu tõttu juhtus tõenäoliselt rohkem õnnetusi treeneritele ja järelvankritele kui hobusega sõitjatele.

Olgu kuidas on, aga inglise sadamasse saabuv välismaalane vaatas üldiselt ringi mõne muu transpordiviisi järele. Võib-olla konsulteeris ta majaomanikuga ja kui ta ööbiks tõeliselt esmaklassilises võõrastemajas, mis hoolitses ainult kvaliteedi eest, kinnitas võõrustaja talle, et ükski härrasmees ei reisinud muul viisil kui järelvoodiga. See edastamisviis sai tavaliseks umbes sajandi keskel. Lamamistoolis istus tavaliselt kaks inimest, kelle teenerite selja taga oli kikk, see oli kergem kui vanad metsatreenerid ja läks kiiremini. Kutsarit polnud ja hobuseid vedas postipoiss, kes sõitis ühel neist. Need post-poisid olid tavaliselt täiskasvanud mehed, kellest mõned olid üsna eakad ja olid selles ametis juba aastaid. Nende elu oli raske, tuule ja ilmaga kokku puutunud, võitles halbade teede, väsinud hobuste ning reisijate kapriiside ja nõmedusega. Pole ime, et nende kohta esitati palju kaebusi, et nad olid sageli rumalad, sageli purjus ja vahel liitusid maanteedega nakatunud kiirteedega. Nende bandiitide palgal olid sageli postipoisid ja kui eriti rikka välimusega külaline lahkus inglist või georgi juurest, siis saatis talli alamees sõna, et nende tähelepanu vääriv härrasmees rändab üles Londoni maantee järgmisel ja järgmisel tunnil.

Postipoisid kandsid üldiselt vormiriietust, võib-olla rohelist, kuldse punutisega ja kaabuga mütsi, kuigi Moritz räägib sellest, mis tal oli, kes "kandis lühikeseks lõigatud juukseid, ümmargust mütsi ja talutavast peenest riidest pruuni jopet, rinnaesine ninaga". Neile loodeti anda jootraha 3d. miil. See koos 1s. 6d. postitamise eest tasutud miil ja 6d. ostlejale, kui hobused vahetati, muutis sellise reisimisviisi väga kalliks. Tõepoolest, kui arvestada raha väärtust ja seda, et enamiku toorainete hinnad on viimase 200 aasta jooksul tohutult tõusnud, võime järeldada, et teekond oli siis kõige kallim, mida inimene ette võtta sai.

Lava treenerid
Lava-treener oli kindlasti odavam. Tasu oli 2d. või 3d. miil koos näpunäidetega reisi lõpus valvurile ja kutsarile. Oma kodumaal oli välisreisija harjunud lavatreeneri või hoolsusega ning just seetõttu sõitis ta tavaliselt sihtkohta.

Lava-treenerid olid rasked, saagivad sõidukid. Sajandi varasematel päevadel olid need üldiselt kaetud tuhmmusta nahaga, naeltega naastudega, raamid ja rattad punasega. Seejärel kaeti aknad laudadega või mõnikord nahast kardinatega. Pastor Moritz, kes tuli 1782. aastal Inglismaale, leidis selle kirjeldusega treeneri endiselt teedelt ning värske õhu ja päikesepaiste maitses kurtis ta kaasreisija, põllumehe üle "kes tundus soovivat valgust vältida ja nii sulgeda kõik aknad, kuhu ta tulla võis."

See ei olnud valgus, mille vastu põllumees vastuväiteid esitas, ja Inglismaal ei pidanud keegi valgust silmas, kuid nad olid kõige tugevamalt vastu aknale tuleva õhu vastu. Nagu teada, kahjustas see tervist kõige enam ja peaaegu kõik oleksid härra Woodhouse'iga sel teemal nõustunud.

Kaheksateistkümnenda sajandi alguse treeneritel puudusid vedrud. Nad kõndisid mööda nelja miili tunnis või isegi vähem, neid tõmbasid kolm hobust, "ükssarvik"nagu seda kutsuti, ja ühe paari peal istus postipoiss.

Lendavad treenerid
Misson, prantsuse rändur, kes külastas Inglismaad 1719. aastal, räägib meile sellest

Sel ajal ei olnud need lendavad treenerid tavalised ega nende kiirus mingil moel liiga suur.

Vanad lavatreenerid olid kindlasti paremad kui kõik teised kontinendil leiduvad.

Ta pidi leidma ühe lavatreeneri, kelle tipus oli kaksteist kuni viisteist inimest. See treenerite tunglemine oli tavaline kaebus. Need olid ehitatud nelja reisija mugavasse kandmiseks ja mitte rohkem kui kuus pidid sõitma peal. Siis oli korv või müristamine. Seda kirjeldati reklaamis ajakirjas Londoni õhtupostitus aastast 1751

Võib -olla näeme seda korvi, milles istub vana naine, Hogarthi pildil Võõrastemaja. Vaene pastor Moritz ei pidanud seda mugavuseks. Väsinud treeneri kõveral katusel küürutamisest, väikese puidust sanga küljes rippumisest, valmistus ta korvi alla libisema. Tema kaasreisija "Blackamoor" üritas teda eemale peletada, viidates, et ta tapetakse pooleldi, kuid ta oli nii ebamugav, et oli seal, et otsustas sellega riskida. Algul, kui nad olid ülesmäge minemas, tundis ta end üsna mugavalt ja oli peaaegu magama jäänud, kui treener hakkas allamäge minema ja kõik kotid ja pakid kukkusid tema peale. Ta oli nii palju muljutud ja raputatud, et tal oli hea meel katusele tagasi ebakindluse juurde ronida. "Üksi sinna tõusmine" ta ütles "oli oma elu ohus" ja ometi, ütleb ta meile, sõitsid naised vahel treenerite tippu. Sel oli "hirmutas ja ahastas teda, nähes, kuidas nad alla tulid". Seda üles- ja allaminekut tuli teha tänaval, sest ükski buss ei oleks siis võinud läbida võlvkaart kõrtsihoovi, kui see oleks reisijaid väljast vedanud. Hiljem, kui välisturistidele istekohti tehti, ehitasid uuemad võõrastemajad kaared nende paigutamiseks piisavalt kõrgele. Põhjus muidugi selles äärmises ebamugavuses reisimiseks oli see, et see oli odav. Väljaspool maksis vaid pool siseistme hinda ja kui ta seda eelistas, võis ta sama summa eest korvis reisida. Kui ta vihma, lume või äärmise ebamugavustunde tõttu tahtis end muuta ja sisse minna, sai ta seda teha ainult siis, kui üks sisekülgedest nõustus ja ta seejärel heategija kõrvale pandi.

"Kõik Gammon"
Aastal 1783 esitas Richard Gammon alamkojas seaduseelnõu välissõitjate arvu reguleerimiseks ja ainult kuus võidakse vedada katusel ja kaks kolme- või neljahobuse bussi kastil ja paaris. hobuseetapp ainult kolm katusel ja üks kastil. " Kõik Gammon ! "hüüatasid raevunud kutsarid ja bussiomanikud. Kas nad ei maksnud juba poolteist aastat miili & naela5 maksu? See tegu oli surnud kiri.

Aastal 1734 kuulutas üks neist uutest transpordivahenditest end "Newcastle'i lendav treenerSee ime tegi tegelikult kogu reisi Londonisse

Siiani oli treener sõitnud võib-olla kakskümmend viis miili või nii kaugele, kui ükssarvik oli võimeline seda joonistama, ja jäi siis puhkama. Reisijad jäid oma kõrtsi ja jätkasid teekonda järgmisel päeval, kui arvati, et hobused on piisavalt värskendatud. Nüüd saaks hobuseid vahetades teekonda kiiremini teha. Ka treenerid hakkasid paranema, klaas asendas aknad laudade ja nahkkardinatega ning sõidukit hakati nimetama klaasibussiks. Hiljem varustati treenerid vedrudega. See ei olnud alati segamatu õnnistus. Postitreenerid, millest me praegu räägime, olid riputatud nii kõrgele, et nende liikumine oli sageli talumatu. New London Inni perenaine Exeter kuulutas, et meilidega sinna saabunud reisijad on üldiselt nii haiged, et läksid kohe ilma õhtusööki tellimata magama, mis ei tulnud tema majale kasuks.

Nendel vanadel treeneritel puudusid vedrud ja me ei suutnud ette kujutada, mis nende halbade teede taga võbeleb. Inimesed kurtsid nende üle, õrnad naised ei reisiks neis, luuletaja Cowper, kartlik mees, anub oma sõprade palveid, kui ta hakkab teekonda tegema. Siis hakkasid mõned inimesed parandusi kaaluma. "Hõõrdumine on hävitatud"oli maalitud telje kastile"Täiustatud Birminghami treener"aastal 1758, mis, kui see oleks tõsi olnud, oleks võinud osutuda veelgi rahustavamaks kui"istus tsite si istus bene"mis oli maalitud Newcastle-London Fly uksele. Siis kuulutas lavatreener, kes läks Dean Streetilt Sohost Edinburghi kümne päevaga suvel ja kaheteistkümne päevaga, ja teatas, et teeb seda

Tempo kiirendati. Moritz kuulutas, et see on pigem lendamine kui sõitmine ja Hollandi reisija Great Yarmouthist Londonisse oli kiirusest nii hirmunud, et pani pea bussiaknast välja ja karjus pidevalt oma keeles, "Ma pean välja saama, ma pean välja tulema." Teine reisija märkis "Postiljonid sõidavad sellise kiirusega, et see laulab mulle kõrvu".

Post ja selle valvurid
John Palmer Bathist oli de Quincey sõnul

Esimene neist postitreeneritest asus teele 1784. aastal ja perekond Palmer sai neist väga hästi hakkama, kogudes kokku siis 100 000 naela tohutu varanduse. Enne seda kuupäeva olid kirjad saatnud hobuse seljas olevad postipoisid. See süsteem oli kõige ebarahuldavam. Ülevõetud hobused jäid lonkama või haigeks jääma, kiusatus õllekruusiga ale-maja tule kohal pikutada oli liiga suur, et sellele vastu hakata, üksikutel maateedel pandi poisse mõnikord kallale ja rööviti. Nii palju kirju ei jõudnud kunagi sihtkohta, et korrespondendid kõhklesid postituse kasutamisel. Nad andsid altkäemaksu lavatreeneri juhile kirjade edastamiseks, kuigi see oli seadusega vastuolus, või usaldasid nad reisivad sõbrad. Palmer mõistis, et kaks kirjaveo tingimust on kiirus ja ohutus. Järgmine on kuulutus, mille ta avaldas 1784. aastal:

Alustuseks esmaspäeval, 2. augustil. Eespool nimetatud vaguni omanikud, kes on nõustunud saatma Londonis ja Bristolisse ja kuueteist tunni jooksul posti koos kaitsega, teavitavad avalikkust lugupidavalt, et see on konstrueeritud nii, et see mahutab neli reisijat kõige mugavamal viisil. asub igal õhtul kell kaheksa teele Luigelt kahe kaelaga Lad's Lane Londonist ja jõuab järgmisel hommikul enne kümmet Three Tuns Inn Bathi ja kell kaksteist Runner Tavern Bristolisse. Asub teele Bristoli kõrtsis igal pärastlõunal kell neli ja jõuab Londonisse kell kaheksa. Hind Bristolisse, Bathi ja Londonisse ja tagasi kahekümne kaheksa šillingit iga reisija kohta. Väljastpoolt pole lubatud. Nii valvur kui ka treener, kes on samuti relvastatud, on omanikele oma käitumise eest piisavalt turvalisust andnud, nii et need daamid ja härrad, kellel võib olla hea meel neid oma julgustusega austada, võivad sõltuda igast lugupidamisest ja tähelepanust.

Ükskõik, millist austust ja tähelepanu nad reisijatele osutasid, võib postitreeneri relvastatud valvur olla teedel hirm. Vimplikiri 1792. aastal kuulutab seda

Ühel korral läks valvur nii kaugele, et tulistas teemaksu hoidja.

Treenerid ja tavalised informaatorid
Vanadel lavatreeneritel puudusid valvurid. Treenerimehel oli tõepoolest kusagil kasti peidetud vigu, kuid ta ei kasutanud seda sageli. Postkontor määras ja maksis kirjade valvuritele tasu ning varustas neid lõikeklaaside ja nööriga, millele oli kinnitatud kokkupandav bajonett. Selliste asjade nägemine sobis mehele pähe ja kui polnud kiirteed, keda tulistada, sihtis ta kukke või siga, aeg -ajalt lõi. Neil meestel oli madal palk, nad sõltusid näpunäidetest või küsitavamatest allikatest. Pakid ja kirjad pandi nende kätte, mitte posti ja nad toimetasid need kohale vähem kui postkontor. Sellele pilgutasid postitreenerite ülevaatajad üldiselt silma. Üks neist kuulutas, et tal ei ole vastuväiteid, et valvur liha liigesed edasi toimetab, ja

Ta protestis siiski, kui valvur kasutas kala kandmiseks postikotti või pani 150 naela. liha ja jääd treenerikasti. Tema arvates oli see natuke liiga palju, inimesed kaebasid iidse ja kalalaadse lõhna üle. Nende vahenditega läks valvuritel üsna hästi ja headel marsruutidel võib teenida & nael400 või & nbsp500 aastas. Mõned kutsarid tegid sama palju või rohkem, teised, kõrvaliste marsruutide lavatreenerite juhid, said väga halvasti hakkama. Öised treenerid olid kõige hullemad. Esimestel päevadel, nagu oleme öelnud, ei olnud öist reisimist. Bussireisijaid tiriti voodist välja kell viis hommikul ja hoiti raputades ja värisedes kõrtsis kell üheksa õhtul. Siis pandi teedele ööbussid. Midagi peeti nende jaoks piisavalt heaks, hobused vankriga, rakmed lagunenud, padjad, kus koi sees, rattad maha. Keegi ei sõitnud ööbussiga, kui ta saaks seda aidata ja õnnetu juht tegi mõnikord mitte rohkem kui 12s. nädal. Kaks šillingit või pool krooni oli treenerimehele tavaline näpunäide.

Vähesed oleksid julgenud anda nii vähe kui šilling, kuigi dr Johnson sõimas Boswellit sama palju andmise eest. Treeneritega ei pidanud tühjaks jääma, sest nad istusid kõrgel boksiistmel, riietatud paljudesse mantlitega mantlitesse ja uhketesse vestidesse, rüüpasid kõlblike saatjate poolt kõrtsist toodud brändit ja vett. Sportliku nooruse silmis oli neis midagi glamuurset, isegi kui nad tundsid kanget vaimu ja olid esihambad ära viilinud, et paremini toime tulla piitsapaeltega, mida nad alati suus kandsid. Paljud noormehed maksid kutsari kõrval istekoha eest lisatasu ja annaksid hea meelega guineale luba sõita korraliku neljakesi mööda siledat teed. Kutsar võis reisijate juhtimise lubamise eest trahvida viiest kuni kümne naelani ja kaheksateistkümnendal sajandil nii laialt levinud tavainformaator varitses sageli heki taga. Need tavalised informaatorid olid tavalised kahjurid. Loomulikult tasusid nad oma ohvritelt saadud trahvidega ja mõned neist moodustasid end tegelikult ühiskondadeks või, võiks öelda, piiramatuteks ettevõteteks, kelle spioonid olid igal teel ja advokaadid tasulised. Still the coachman, with that reckless disregard of the law and its consequences so characteristic of the age, would often pass the ribbons into other hands, smoke a pipe or take snuff and talk horses, while the young man who had slipped speedily on to the box seat had realized his ambition. We do not know whether he paid the coachman's heavy fine if the matter ever came into court. The men who drove the mail-coaches were a brave, hardy race, many of them great characters. It is pleasant to think that Mr. Weller, senior, must have driven a coach over the roads of the eighteenth century. Another driver, William Salter, drove the Yarmouth stage-coach and has his epitaph in the churchyard of Haddiscoe, near Lowestoft:

On a fine summer's day on good roads and when seats had been provided, a drive on the top of a coach could be extremely pleasant. Even the names of the vehicles were exciting. Seal olid Telegraphs, Highfliers, Balloon coaches, Defiances and more sober-sounding Hopes, Perseverances, Regulators ja Good Intents. On May Day they would be decked with flowers, with holly at Christmas and for a victory with laurel. As the coach drove into a town or village the guard would play a tune on his horn. The inhabitants could set their clocks and watches by the mail-coaches for they kept excellent time. Coachmen were fined if they were late and at the end of the century often carried a chronometer in a leather case. The stage-coach drivers never bothered about punctuality.

The Stage Coach
In 1737 there was a coach which advertised that it went from London to Exeter in three days but everyone knew that it took about six. The mail-coaches, towards the end of the century, might do as much as seven miles an hour on tolerable roads but the stages did three or four and on bad roads and in bad weather even less. Then the stage-coaches had to stop, or at least slow down at every toll-gate, while the mails, their guard playing Arthur O'Bradley or Blackeyed Susan on his horn, dashed through the gates without paying a groat. Elizabeth Carter, who was fond of taking country walks, had on one occasion resolved to meet a coach at an inn and take it part of the way home. When she reached the inn she found it had already passed but by walking quickly she was able to catch it up. A stage coachman would generally make room for a chance passenger and put the fare into his own pocket. In the ordinary way it was necessary to secure a seat beforehand, have the name entered in a book and pay down a proportion of the fare. The place where this was done was called a booking-office and the name has persisted into the railway era and down to our own time.

Nearly every foreigner expressed surprise and delight at the comfort of English travel. It must have compared favourably with his own. Englishmen were less enthusiastic. They complained bitterly of being jolted to death, overcharged, cramped and pressed, insulted by the coachman and of the excessive cold in winter. Coach proprietors did what they could. "There was enough straw round my feet to conceal a covey of partridges" one ungrateful passenger remarked. In the early days many coaches laid up for the winter, emerging again on the first of May. When the coach climbed a hill, the male travellers got out and walked. Sometimes they condescended to exchange a few words with the outsides, letting it be known that they would not speak to such low fellows when they came to their inn. The behaviour of the travelling Englishman is well described by Count Kielmansegg.

Flying Waggons
The Count, when he wrote thus, had just been subjected to a vexatious delay at Godalming, as the Duke of York and Prince Charles of Mecklenburg had taken all the horses from the inn. He had had to travel in a "flying-machine" which he evidently considered beneath his dignity, though he was consoled by finding a Captain Campbell of the East India service, who was related to the Duke of Argyll, reduced to the same extremity.

This flying-machine probably resembled the one described as follows:

The machine certainly never flew. It was indeed a glorified specimen of the stage-waggon. This vehicle was an immense cart with benches inside covered by a canvas or leather hood. It was drawn at foot's pace by eight strong horses and the waggoner walked at their in heads. It never did more than two miles an hour and only travelled in the day time. Generally the same team of horses pulled the waggon through all its journeys but the flying waggons changed horses. There was the Shrewsbury Flying Waggon which began flying from Shrewsbury to London in 1750. This took five days to travel 152 miles. These heavy waggons cut up the roads, and after 1766 they were compelled to have wheels not less than sixteen inches broad and a bonus was given to those which were over two feet in breadth. A few years later James Sharpe of London made waggon wheels so broad that they rolled the roads, and the vehicle was known as the rolling waggon. People travelled in these slow-moving, uncomfortable carts because they were cheap. The charge was 1d. or 1½d. a mile, whereas the stage-coaches charged 3d. või 4d. a mile.

Travellers, who went in their own carriages, could take as much luggage as the vehicle would hold and the horses could draw. Sometimes, distrustful of inn furnishings, they conveyed their own mattresses and bed linen and even canteens of plate. The coaches had to limit the amount of luggage which passengers might take with them. Fourteen pounds weight was usually carried free anything over this amount was charged a penny a pound and heavy luggage was refused. The cost of carriage by the waggon was very high 40s. a ton would have been charged for the carriage of goods between Manchester and Liverpool, though they could be sent by water for 12s.

Moritz did not suffer from this treatment merely because he was a foreigner. Richard Warner, an English clergyman, who was so eccentric as to go on walking tours, met with gross rudeness from inn-keepers and jeers and missiles from small boys. It was supposed that no man of substance would ever walk, except with a gun over his shoulder, and that everyone who tramped the roads was either a footpad or a pauper. The roads were generally in such a bad state that walking could not have been pleasant and there was always the danger of attacks from footpads. It was not till the early nineteenth century when the highways were improved and robbers were less numerous, that walking became the pleasure and pastime of all classes.

Coaches were forbidden to travel on a Sunday, though the law was sometimes disregarded. So little travelling was there, however, that highwaymen did not consider it worth while to go out on Sundays. Grosley, marooned at Dover with a number of other passengers, found coachmen willing to drive them to London.

Messrs. Pickford
By 1777 Messrs. Pickford had already started a career which has lasted to the present time, as the following advertisement in Prescott's Manchester Journal will show:

It was not only the poor who travelled by these stage-waggons or caravans as they were sometimes called. Middle-class persons, especially women travelling alone, often preferred them. The highwaymen scorned them as beneath their notice. It is true the waggons carried goods and luggage, but these were usually heavy, bulky articles, too big and weighty for the coaches. It is probable, as Messrs. Pickford's advertisement suggests, that some people entrusted plate, watches and jewellery to their care. Highwaymen on horseback could not remove anything big or heavy, nor could they spend time examining luggage, it would have been too risky. Their policy was to snatch watches, jewellery or purses from the unlucky travellers, and then ride hastily away. The foreign visitor would not use the waggon except in cases of necessity like Count Kielmansegg or when, like Pastor Moritz, he had to consider ways and means. If he did not travel by it he probably dispatched his heavy luggage in it or, from a port, there were often facilities for sending it by sea, from inland towns by river and by the canals which intersected England. Much merchandise was carried by water, since the rivers had been deepened and supplied with locks, and Brindley had begun to make canals. This water traffic, as Dr. Trevelyan points out, led to a great increase in foreign trade, and consequently, we may infer, in the number of foreign travellers in England.

Travelling by water had its dangers and discomfort. "Gott sei dank!" von Uffenbach ejaculated when he came safely up the river from Greenwich. He tells us that when he got to London Bridge he

De Saussure writes that there were 15,000 boats to be hired on the Thames in London. The inhabitants liked this method of transport. There might be some danger at London Bridge, and there were sometimes collisions on the congested waterway but on a fine day it was easy and tranquil, the passengers by boat glided pleasantly along, avoiding the cobbled streets, the ruts and pitfalls of suburban roads, the attentions of highwaymen.


Travelling from England to China in 1810 - History

Each of us has been touched in some way by the experiences, choices and attitudes of our ancestors. The decisions they were often forced to make during the great migrations of the 1800s radically changed our ancestors' world - and ours. 1800-1900 ? Unprecedented population growth in Europe along with social, political and religious conflict left millions without land or a means of support in the 19th century. Many moved to cities, other countries or across oceans in search of a better life. Industrialization accelerated rapidly with manufacturing techniques. Improvements in turnpikes, canals, steam engines and railroads made it possible for made it possible to move from one place to another with more ease. In the years just after the American Revolution, the westward migration of Americans intensified. In 1800, significant numbers of settlers were moving to Kentucky and Tennessee ? the only two states west of the Appalachians at the time. Early in the century, as the states of Ohio, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi and Alabama opened up, they too became magnets for those hoping to find their fortunes and better lands to cultivate. 1803 ? War between England and France resumed. As a result, transatlantic trade and emigration from continental Europe became practically impossible. Irish emigration was curtailed by the British Passenger Act, which limited the numbers to be carried by emigrant ships. 1803-1851 ? When the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, the door was opened for the government to move forward more aggressively with earlier attempts to relocate eastern tribes of Native Americans to lands beyond the Mississippi River. Although initially rejecting the forced moves, small groups of Native Americans left for the west in 1810 and again between 1817 and 1819. For the next several decades, Native Americans were moved out of areas where whites were settling. In 1838, U.S. Army troops were ordered to round up as many Cherokees as possible and to march them over 800 miles across the plains and across the Mississippi to the Oklahoma Territory. An estimated 4,000 to 5,000 Cherokees died on what became known as the Trail of Tears. In 1851, the Indian Appropriations Act consolidated western tribes on reservations to enable the westward expansion of settlers and to open the way for the building of the transcontinental railroad. 1807-1808 ? In 1807, the Congress of the United States passed the Act Prohibiting the Importation of Slaves. The federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported took effect in 1808. 1812-1814 ? The War of 1812 between Britain and the United States brought immigration to a halt until the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 that ended the war. 1815-1865 - The largest global migration of modern times began just after the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) and continued for the rest of the century. The first great wave of emigration to the United States brought 5 million immigrants between 1815 and 1860. 1818-1861 ? Liverpool became the most-used port of departure for British and Irish immigrants, as well as considerable numbers of Germans and other Europeans as the Black Ball Line sailing packets began regular Liverpool to New York service. Before the American Civil War (1861-1865), the vast majority of immigrants came from western and central Europe: Ireland, England, Wales, France, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and German-speaking areas. Ship Europa (built 1848) voyaged from Liverpool to New York. From New York Port, Ship Images at Ancestry. 1819 ? The first significant federal legislation was passed relating to immigration: Passenger lists were to be given to the collector of customs and immigration to the United States was to be reported on a regular basis. 1820 ? The United States saw the arrival of 151,000 new immigrants. 1825 ? Great Britain officially recognized the view that England was overpopulated and repealed laws prohibiting emigration. 1825 ? The completion of the Erie Canal linked the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Erie and opened up a new era in transportation history. Completed by thousands of immigrant laborers, the waterway forged a new route to the interior of the country and made New York City the greatest port in the world. 1840 ? The Cunard Line began passenger transportation between Europe and the United States, opening the steamship era. 1845 ? The Native American party, precursor of the nativist and anti-immigrant Know-Nothing party, was founded. 1846 ? Crop failures in Europe and mortgage foreclosures sent tens of thousands of dispossessed to the United States. 1846-47 ? Irish of all classes immigrated to the United States as a result of the potato famine. The fares of many immigrants were paid for by landlords, the British government or the local Poor Law Union. 1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), was signed on February 2, 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, Mexico ceded to the United States Upper California and New Mexico. This was known as the Mexican Cession and included present-day Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the boundary with the United States. 1848 ? Failure of German revolution resulted in the emigration of political refugees. 1849 ? California Gold Rush drew migrants from across the United States and foreign countries. 1855 ? Castle Garden immigration receiving station opened in New York City to accommodate mass immigration. Alien women married to U.S. citizens became U.S. citizens by law (the law was repealed in 1922). 1858 ? A financial crisis in Sweden caused large-scale migration to the United States. 1860 ? New York became the largest Irish city in the world. Of its 805,651 residents, 203,760 were Irish-born. 1861-1865 ? The Civil War caused a significant drop in the number of foreigners entering the United States. Large numbers of immigrants served on both sides during the war. 1862 ? The Homestead Act encouraged naturalization by granting citizens title to 160 acres, provided that the land was tilled for five years. Homesteading Family. Photo courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration 1864 ? Congress centralized control of immigration with a commissioner under the Secretary of State. In an attempt to meet the labor crisis caused by the Civil War, Congress legalized the importation of contract laborers. 1875 ? The first direct federal regulation of immigration was established by prohibiting entry of prostitutes and convicts. Residency permits were required of Asians. 1880 ? The U.S. population was 50,155,783. More than 5.2 million immigrants entered the country between 1880 and 1890. 1882 ? The Chinese Exclusion law was established, curbing Chinese immigration. A general immigration law of the same year excluded persons convicted of political offenses, lunatics, idiots, and persons likely to become public charges. A head tax of fifty cents was placed on each immigrant. A sharp rise in Jewish emigration to the United States was prompted by the outbreak of anti-Semitism in Russia. 1883 ? In an effort to alleviate a labor shortage caused by the freeing of the slaves, the Southern Immigration Association was founded to promote immigration to the South. 1885 ? Contract laborers were denied admission to the United States by the Foran Act. However, skilled laborers, artists, actors, lecturers and domestic servants were not barred. Individuals in the United States were not to be prevented from assisting the immigration of relatives and personal friends. 1890 ? New York City had the distinction of being home to as many Germans as Hamburg, Germany. 1891 ? The Bureau of Immigration was established under the Treasury Department to federally administer all immigration laws (except the Chinese Exclusion Act). Classes of persons convicted of felonies or misdemeanors of moral turpitude and polygamists. Pogroms in Russia caused large numbers of Jews to immigrate to the United States. 1892 ? Ellis Island replaced Castle Garden as the New York reception center for immigrants. 1893 ? Chinese legally in the United States were required to apply to collectors of internal revenue for certificates of residence or be removed. 1894 ? The Immigration Restriction League was organized to lead the restriction movement for the next twenty-five years. The league emphasized the distinction between old' (northern and western Europeans) and new' (southern and eastern European) immigrants. 1894-96 ? To escape massacres, Armenian Christians began immigrating to the United States. 1900 ? The U.S. population was at 75,994,575. More than 3,687,000 immigrants were admitted in the previous ten years.

Checking the regional risk level

China’s National Health Commission launched a WeChat mini program (see the below graphic) for citizens to check out the infection risk level of a special area, for epidemic personnel to check out the countries and cities visited (staying for more than four hours) by the traveler during the past 14 days.

The program also allows users to check if they used the same public transport as the confirmed cases during the last 14 days.

Similar to the color scheme of the health code system, the outbreak risk level system grants “green” color to low-risk areas, “yellow” to medium-risk areas, and “red” to high-risk areas.

Risk levels are assessed based on the number of new cases.

  • Low-risk areas – are areas with no confirmed cases or no new confirmed cases for 14 consecutive days
  • Medium-risk areas – are those with new confirmed cases within 14 days – but the total new cases are no more than 50, or with cumulatively more than 50 confirmed cases – but no cluster epidemic within 14 days and
  • High-risk areas – are those where the cumulative number of confirmed cases have exceeded 50 cases, and a cluster epidemic was recorded within the last 14 days.

By August 11, the entire country has been classified as low-risk except for several districts and streets in Liaoning province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Generally speaking, as long as you are traveling from a low-risk area, the green color in your health code system won’t change. But if you are from medium or high-risk areas, your travel to other Chinese provinces and cities will probably be restricted.


Hong Kong returned to China

At midnight on July 1, 1997, Hong Kong reverts back to Chinese rule in a ceremony attended by British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles of Wales, Chinese President Jiang Zemin and U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. A few thousand Hong Kongers protested the turnover, which was otherwise celebratory and peaceful.

In 1839, Britain invaded China to crush opposition to its interference in the country’s economic, social, and political affairs. One of Britain’s first acts of the war was to occupy Hong Kong, a sparsely inhabited island off the coast of southeast China. In 1841, China ceded the island to the British with the signing of the Convention of Chuenpi, and in 1842 the Treaty of Nanking was signed, formally ending the First Opium War.

Britain’s new colony flourished as an East-West trading center and as the commercial gateway and distribution center for southern China. In 1898, Britain was granted an additional 99 years of rule over Hong Kong under the Second Convention of Peking. In September 1984, after years of negotiations, the British and the Chinese signed a formal agreement approving the 1997 turnover of the island in exchange for a Chinese pledge to preserve Hong Kong’s capitalist system. On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was peaceably handed over to China in a ceremony attended by numerous Chinese, British, and international dignitaries. The chief executive under the new Hong Kong government, Tung Chee Hwa, formulated a policy based on the concept of “one country, two systems,” thus preserving Hong Kong’s role as a principal capitalist center in Asia.  


What Exactly Was an Indentured Servant?

Indentured servants were people who came to America under a work contract, called an indenture. The term of an indenture was typically 4 to 7 years, after which time the servant was given the freedom to manage his or her own affairs.Some were even granted land and money.

For those entering indentured service voluntarily (not everyone did) the indenture was usually arranged through an agent. The agent would make agreements with employers who were willing to provide work for servants and would pay passage for the servants to travel to America (plus the agent’s fee, of course). Then, the servant and the employer would sign the indenture, making it a legally binding contract.

Here is the record of the indenture of Henry Mayer to Abraham Hestant of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on 29 September 1738 from Wikimedia Commons.

Indentured service was a sort of “work your way to America” program for people who couldn’t otherwise afford the expense. For others, it was a way to settle debts that they could not pay or as a sentence for criminal behavior – even minor offences. Old Bailey Online, one of the resources covered in our guide to criminal record research, has multiple examples of such punishment for petty and serious crimes (called transportation).

The system was often abused and was sometimes used to force people into service. A court case heard in the Salem Quarterly Court on 25 June 1661 documents an instance of people who were kidnapped and sold into indentured service. The case involves a master, Samuel Symonds, who brought charges against his two servants, William Downing and Philip Welch, for failing to complete the term of their service. The two young men claimed that they had been forcibly sold into service by George Dill, a ship’s captain who traded in indentured servants and slaves.

The proceedings of the case can be read in the Records and Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County Massachusetts , Volume II (1912), pp. 294-297. You can access these records free of charge through Google Books. Simply go to Google Play and search the title.

Servants usually worked as farm laborers or domestic servants completing manual labor. While indentures were contracts between two people, an employer could sell an indenture to a third party so, often, servants were bought and sold just like property. Servants could be physically punished, could not marry without permission from their masters, and did not have rights in court.

For example, in the court case previously mentioned, the defendants did not win their case because the contract between the master and the ship’s captain was found to be legal, even though the two young men had been forced into service.

Were indentured servants slaves?

Because indentured servants were considered property and were treated similarly to slaves at times in American history, as explained by the Law Library of Congress, many people wonder if an indentured servant can be considered a slave. While parallels do exist, indentured servants were not slaves and their plight cannot be compared to that of African slaves in the United States.

As addressed in this article, many indentured servants were forced into service and treated horrendously – including those accused of petty crimes and servant women who were impregnated by their employers – but they were still considered human and had some rights, however minimal. They also had the hope of one day being released from their servitude. This was not true for African slaves. For help finding records and resources to better understand slavery please read our guide to African American research.

Despite these hardships, many people chose this as a way to immigrate to America. The use of indentured servants was the most common in the Middle Atlantic colonies, ranging from New Jersey down to Virginia.

The practice declined during the American Revolution and subsequent laws passed in the United States made it more expensive to finance indentures, and more difficult to enforce them. Many of those looking for cheap labor became more likely to purchase slaves.

Involuntary servitude, along with slavery in the United States, was banned as a part of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.


China Travel Advisory

Reconsider travel to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) due to arbitrary enforcement of local laws. Reconsider travel to the PRC’s Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) due to COVID-19-related travel restrictions.

Read the Department of State’s COVID-19 page before you plan any international travel.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 1 Travel Health Notice for the PRC and a Level 1 Travel Health Notice for Hong Kong, due to COVID-19. Your risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing severe symptoms may be lower if you are fully vaccinated with an FDA authorized vaccine. Before planning any international travel, please review the CDC's specific recommendations for vaccinated and unvaccinated travelers.

The PRC has resumed most business operations (including day cares and schools). Other improved conditions have been reported within the PRC. Visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 and related restrictions and conditions in the PRC, as testing and travel requirements frequently change.

There are restrictions in place affecting U.S. citizen entry into Hong Kong. Visit the Consulate General's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 and related restrictions and conditions in Hong Kong.

Please monitor the Hong Kong government’s website for further updates on COVID-19, as testing, transit, and travel requirements frequently change.

The PRC government arbitrarily enforces local laws, including by carrying out arbitrary and wrongful detentions and through the use of exit bans on U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries without due process of law. The PRC government uses arbitrary detention and exit bans to:

  • compel individuals to participate in PRC government investigations,
  • pressure family members to return to the PRC from abroad,
  • influence PRC authorities to resolve civil disputes in favor of PRC citizens, and
  • gain bargaining leverage over foreign governments.

In most cases, U.S. citizens only become aware of an exit ban when they attempt to depart the PRC, and there is no reliable mechanism or legal process to find out how long the ban might continue or to contest it in a court of law.

U.S. citizens traveling or residing in the PRC, including Hong Kong, may be detained without access to U.S. consular services or information about their alleged crime. U.S. citizens may be subjected to prolonged interrogations and extended detention without due process of law.

Foreigners in the PRC, including but not limited to businesspeople, former foreign government personnel, and journalists from Western countries, have been arbitrarily interrogated and detained by PRC officials for alleged violations of PRC national security laws. The PRC has also threatened, interrogated, detained, and expelled U.S. citizens living and working in the PRC.

Security personnel may detain and/or deport U.S. citizens for sending private electronic messages critical of the PRC government.

The PRC government does not recognize dual nationality. U.S.-PRC citizens and U.S. citizens of Chinese heritage may be subject to additional scrutiny and harassment, and the PRC government may prevent the U.S. Embassy from providing consular services.

XINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUS REGION and TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION

Extra security measures, such as security checks and increased levels of police presence, are common in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Tibet Autonomous Regions. Authorities may impose curfews and travel restrictions on short notice.

HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION

Since the imposition of the National Security Law on June 30, 2020, the PRC unilaterally and arbitrarily exercises police and security power in Hong Kong. The PRC has demonstrated an intention to use this authority to target a broad range of activities it defines as acts of secession, subversion, terrorism, and collusion with foreign entities. The National Security Law also covers offenses committed by non-Hong Kong residents or organizations outside of Hong Kong, which could subject U.S. citizens who have been publicly critical of the PRC to a heightened risk of arrest, detention, expulsion, or prosecution. PRC security forces, including the new Office for Safeguarding National Security, now operate in Hong Kong and are not subject to oversight by the Hong Kong judiciary.

Demonstrations: Participating in demonstrations or any other activities that authorities interpret as constituting an act of secession, subversion, terrorism, or collusion with a foreign country could result in criminal charges. On June 30, 2020, as part of its color-coded system of warning flags, the Hong Kong police unveiled a new purple flag, which warns protesters that shouting slogans or carrying banners with an intent prohibited by the law could now bring criminal charges.


What Did People Eat In The 1800s?

The War of 1812 concluded in 1815, and in the decades to come, the United States developed a vast transportation system, a national bank, and interstate trade. The economy blossomed, and canals, roads, cities, and industrialization expanded.

England’s defeat in the War of 1812 also removed barriers to westward expansion and, tragically, accelerated Native American removal.

Two hundred years ago, the United States stood at the edge of a frontier — both literally and figuratively. So what was life like at that exciting time?

Populatsioon: By 1815, the United States had grown into a country of 8,419,000 people, including about 1.5 million slaves. (Official estimates are available for the entire population in 1815, but slave counts were conducted during the censuses of 1810 and 1820. In the 1810 census, there were 1,191,362 slaves by the 1820 census, there were 1,538,022 slaves). While a population of less than 10 million seems small compared to today’s count of over 320 million people, the population in 1815 had more than doubled since the country’s first census, taken in 1790, when there were 3,929,214 people. The population would continue to increase by more than 30 percent each decade for much of the 19th century.

Almost all of this growth was due to high birth rates, as immigration was low in 1815, slowed by European wars that raged from 1790 to 1815. Only about 8,000 per year entered during this period. The 1820 census counted 8,385 immigrants, including one from China and one from Africa.

Food: Because these innovations in transportation were still in their infancy in 1815, however, most Americans ate what they grew or hunted locally. Corn and beans were common, along with pork. In the north, cows provided milk, butter, and beef, while in the south, where cattle were less common, venison and other game provided meat. Preserving food in 1815, before the era of refrigeration, required smoking, drying, or salting meat. Vegetables were kept in a root cellar or pickled.

For those who had to purchase their food, one record notes the following retail prices in 1818 in Washington, D.C.: beef cost 6 to 8 cents a pound, potatoes cost 56 cents a bushel, milk was 32 cents a gallon, tea 75 cents to $2.25 a pound. Shoes ran $2.50 a pair. Clothing expenses for a family of six cost $148 a year, though the record does not indicate the quality of the clothes.

Esivanemate ja ametite õppimiseks sisestage oma perekonnanimi.

Life Expectancy: The boom in native population in the early 19th century was even more remarkable considering the low life expectancies of the time. By one estimate, a white man who had reached his 20th birthday could expect to live just another 19 years. A white woman at 20 would live, on average, only a total of 38.8 years. If measuring from birth, which counted infant mortality, life expectancy would have been even lower. A white family in the early 19th century would typically have seven or eight children, but one would die by age one and another before age 21. And, of course, for slaves, childhood deaths were higher and life expectancy was even lower. About one in three African American children died, and only half lived to adulthood.

Disease was rampant during this time. During the War of 1812, which concluded in 1815, more soldiers died from disease than from fighting. The main causes of death for adults during this period were malaria and tuberculosis, while children most commonly died from measles, mumps, and whooping cough, all preventable today.

Housing: More than four out of every five Americans during the early 19th century still lived on farms. Many farmers during this time also made goods by hand that they’d use, barter, or sell, such as barrels, furniture, or horseshoes. Cities remained relatively small and were clustered around East Coast seaports: New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and Charleston, South Carolina. In the 1810 census, New York, the largest, was home to 96,373 people. By 1820, the population would reach 123,706. Try out a search of 1800s census records on the Ancestry website.

Employment: Industrialization would soon accelerate urbanization. In England, the Industrial Revolution had begun in the mid-18th century, and despite attempts made to restrict the export of technology, in 1789, a 21-year-old Englishman memorized the plan for a textile mill and then opened a cotton-spinning plant in Rhode Island. By 1810, more than 100 such mills, employing women and children at less than a dollar a week, were operating throughout New England. By the 1830s, textile production would become the country’s largest industry.

Wages for other industries during the time ranged from $10 to $17 a month for seamen. Farm laborers after the end of the War of 1812 earned $12 to $15 dollars a month. A male school teacher earned $10 to $12 a month a female teacher earned $4 to $10. In Massachusetts, a tailor and printer could both expect to earn $6 a week, while a servant might earn only 50 cents a week.

Transport: Industrialization affected the country in other ways, of course. In 1815, there were no steam railroads in America, so long-distance travel was by horseback or uncomfortable stagecoach over rutted roads. Cargo moved by horse-team was limited to 25-30 miles a day. But in 1811, Congress signed a contract for the construction of the National Road, the first highway built by the national government. By 1818, it had crossed the Appalachian Mountains, fostering westward expansion.

In 1815, Americans were also discovering steamboat travel. In 1807, Robert Fulton had opened the first steamboat ferry service, between Albany and New York City. By 1815, advances in technology allowed a rival to ferry arms and ammunition to General (later President) Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, the last battle of the War of 1812, and then to steam back up the Mississippi and then the Ohio to Pittsburgh, proving the feasibility of steamboat navigation of the mighty river.

Entertainment: For recreation, horse racing became increasingly popular by the time of the War of 1812. Singing and sheet music became widely popular, particularly “broadside songs,” or lyrics printed on a sheet of paper and sold for a penny. The sheet had no music, but instructed the purchaser which popular, well-known tune the words could be sung to. The songs often had to do with current political or military events. At the other end of the artistic spectrum, the Boston Handel and Haydn Society, formed in 1815, performed Handel’s “Messiah” in its opening concert.

Finally, singing played a large part in one of the most significant social movements of the time — and in all of America’s history — the Second Great Awakening. From 1790 to 1830, wave after wave of Protestant evangelism swept across the country. Tens of thousands of people would attend a single camp meeting, marked by enthusiastic preaching and audience singing and participation. These more informal services, led by itinerant preachers, also helped tie settlers on the Western frontier to the cultural life of the rest of the country. The Second Great Awakening also fostered greater participation by women and African Americans, who continued developing their artistic traditional of spiritual music during this period.

Curious about your ancestors’ daily lives 200 years ago? Reconstruct and reconnect to their lives with a free trial on Ancestry, where you’ll find War of 1812 records as well.


Vaata videot: Seeder Reisid, öine Shanghai (Juuli 2022).


Kommentaarid:

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