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Chickamauga lahing

Chickamauga lahing


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Cumberlandi põhjaarmee, umbes 58 000 inimest, liikus 1863. aasta varasügisel kindral William Rosecransi juhtimisel Chattanooga poole. Lõuna komandör kindral Braxton Bragg viis oma väed linnast välja ja marssis lõunasse. Rosecrans arvas, et konföderaadid suundusid Atlanta poole, kuid ta mõistis olukorda halvasti. Braggi väed said tugevdusi ja suutsid Chickamauga oja ääres, umbes 10 miili Chattanoogast lõuna pool, kohtuda oma vastastega lõksu. Rosecrans ega Bragg ei näidanud Chickamaugas meeldejäävaid sõjalisi oskusi, kuid konföderatsiooni ülesanne, mida juhtisid esimese korpuse elemendid Põhja -Virginia armee leitnant Thomase juhtimisel sai tuntuks "Chickamauga kaljul" ja Longstreet "Metsapullil" nende rollide eest lahingus.Suured lõunapoolsed kaotused takistasid Braggil oma eelise survet, kui liidu sõdurid suundusid põhja poole Chattanooga. Liidu hukkunuid oli 16 000 ja konföderaate 18 000. Pärast seda pettumust asendas president Lincoln Rosecransi USA toetusega, kes juhib lääne armeed. Grant määras Thomase Chattanooga pidama.


Sellel õlimaalil on kujutatud 15. Wisconsini jalaväe süüdistust ja kolonel Hans C. Hegi surma Chickamauga lahingus. Vaadake algdokumenti: WHI 2538

Monument 15. Wisconsini jalaväele Chickamauga ja Chattanooga rahvuslikus sõjaväepargis. Vaadake algdokumenti: WHI 91962

Kuupäev (ad): 18.-20. September 1863

Asukoht: Chickamauga, Georgia (Google'i kaart)

Kampaania: Chickamauga kampaania (august-september 1863)

Tulemus: Konföderatsiooni võit

Kokkuvõte

Lüüasaamine Gruusia Chickamauga linnas 1863. aasta sügisel jättis liidu väed Tennessee osariigis Chattanoogasse kinni ja peatas ajutiselt liidu tungimise Konföderatsiooni südamesse.

1863. aasta augusti alguses anti Liidu vägedele korraldus liikuda Tennessee jõe orgu ja võtta Tennessee osariigis Chattanooga. Pärast selle hõivamist septembri alguses lükkasid liidu kindralid kaugemale lõunasse. Nad kohtusid oma vaenlasega 10 miili kaugusel linnast, üle Gruusia osariigi piiri. Kolme päeva jooksul astus 58 000 liidu sõdurit 66 000 konföderatsiooni vastu sõja teises verisemas lahingus (pärast Gettysburgi lahingut).

Vastasliinid olid kuus miili pikad. Suur osa lahingutest toimus nii paksudes metsades, et kohati ei teadnud kumbki pool teise täpset asukohta. Mõnikord ei suutnud ülemad oma vägesid leida. Strateegilised manöövrid olid rasked ja üllatuskohtumised tavalised. Kolme päeva jooksul võimaldas liidu kindralite valeinformatsioon koos halva otsustusvõimega konföderatsioonidel neid Chattanooga tagasi lükata.

Wisconsini roll

1., 10., 15., 21. ja 24. Wisconsini jalaväerügement koos 1. Wisconsini ratsaväega ning 3., 5. ja 8. Wisconsini kergekahurväe patareid osalesid ägedamates lahingutes.

Wisconsini 1. jalaväe kaplan teatas, et 80 protsenti selle meestest tapeti, sai haavata või võeti vangi. Peaaegu täielikult Norra sisserändajatest koosnevat 15. Wisconsini jalaväge juhtis väljakul kolonel Hans C. Heg, kes lahingus hukkus. Wisconsini 21. jalavägi leidis end ümbritsetuna. Kolonelleitnant Harrison C. Hobart oli nende hulgas, kes tabati ja saadeti Libby vanglasse. Järgmisel veebruaril juhtis ta julgelt tunnelit põgenedes üle 100 vangi.

Lingid lisateabe saamiseks
Lugege Wisconsini vägede kogemuste kohta
Vaata lahingukaarte
Vaadake seotud pilte
Vaadake originaaldokumente

[Allikas: aruanne rahvuse kodusõja lahinguväljadest (Washington, 1993) Estabrook, C. Records and Sketches of Military Organizations (Madison, 1914) Love, W. Wisconsin in the War of the Rebellion (Madison, 1866).


Chickamauga lahinguväli

Suur osa Chickamauga lahingust toimus metsasel maastikul.

1863. aasta suve lõpus manööverdas Cumberlandi armee kindral William Rosecransi juhtimisel Tennessee keskosast lõunasse, eesmärgiga vallutada Chattanooga linn, mis on värav Konföderatsiooni. Septembri lõpuks ületas suur osa liidu armeest linnast lõuna pool asuva Lookouti mäe ja ähvardas katkestada Tennessee konföderatsiooni armee, mida juhtis kindral Braxton Bragg. Braggi konföderaadid taandusid Gruusiasse LaFayette'i poole. Mõlemad armeed tegid seejärel Chattanoogast lõuna pool asuvate mägede ja lahete vahel mängu kassi ja hiirega.

18. septembril 1863 üritas Konföderatsiooni armee ületada Lääne -Chickamauga oja mitmete sildade ja kahurite juures. Liidu ratsavägi oli nende ristumiste vastu, eriti Reedi silla ja Aleksandri silla juures. Järgmiseks päevaks, 19. septembriks, oli kokkupõrge piki ojaületuskohti täiemahuliseks lahinguks. 19. septembri päeva jooksul kogunesid konföderatsiooni väed idast võitlusse, mida tugevdasid kindral James Longstreet ja tema mehed Põhja -Virginia armeest, samal ajal kui liidu tugevdused liikusid sisse põhjast ja lõunast. See oli õõvastav võitlus, kuna metsaga kaetud maastik varjas vägede liikumist ja positsioone, mis viisid kaoseni, kui üksused pimesi üksteist ründasid. Kogu päeva saagis lahing kogu päeva LaFayette Roadist ida pool metsas edasi-tagasi, kuigi õhtuks oli liidu armee ankurdatud tugevale positsioonile LaFayette'i tee ääres.

Wilderi brigaadi monument on 85 jala kõrgune torn, kust avaneb vaade lahinguvälja lõunaotsale, kus võitles John Wilderi "välgubrigaad". See on külastajatele avatud, kui ilm lubab hooajaliselt kevadel, suvel ja sügisel ronida.

Bragg korraldas üleöö Tennessee armee ümber, pannes äsja Virginiast saabunud kindral James Longstreeti, kes juhtis armee vasakpoolset tiiba, ja kindral Leonidas Polki paremale. Bragg plaanis varahommikust rünnakut, kuid Braggi ja tema alluvate vaheline ebaõige suhtlemine lükkas rünnaku kella 9.30 paiku. Rünnak algas Konföderatsiooni paremalt poolt, kus konföderatsiooni väed endise asepresidendi John C. Breckenridge'i juhtimisel ja Iirimaal sündinud Patrick Cleburne ründasid liitu, lahkudes mööda tänapäeva Battleline Roadit ja Kelly Fieldi piirkonda. Selles võitluses sai surma president Abraham Lincolni õemees, liidukindral Benjamin Helm.

Sel hommikul koges kindral William Rosecrans oma suhtlemist ja sellel olid katastroofilised tagajärjed Cumberlandi armeele. Lahinguhoos andis ta kindral Thomas Woodile vastuolulisi korraldusi, kuidas ta peaks oma väed paigutama. Wood tõmbas oma väed rivist välja ja hakkas neid põhja poole liigutama, tekitades liidu armee keskele haigutava augu. Sel hetkel tabas katastroof, kui Longstreet'i konföderaadid ründasid seda kohta, kus Wood oli just Brothertoni kajuti lähedal vabanenud. Liidu armee kesk ja parem pool varisesid kokku ja suunati Rossville'i poole. Kindral George Thomas koondas oma korpuse Snodgrass Hillist vasakule jäänud liidule ja hoidis Gordon Grangeri juhitud reservkorpuse toel terve pärastlõuna halastamatuid konföderatsiooni rünnakuid, päästes liidu armee hävitamisest. Selle päeva töö eest sai Thomas tuntuks kui Chickamauga kalju. 20. septembri õhtul 1863. aastal taganes Thomas ja tema mehed lahinguväljalt ning liitusid uuesti sõjaväega Chattanooga.


Chickamauga lahing - ajalugu

Chickamauga lahing oli konflikt, mis leidis aset Gruusias Ameerika kodusõja ajal. Föderaal- ja Konföderatsiooni väed osalesid kahe päeva jooksul 19. ja 20. septembril 1863. aastal Catoosa maakonnas ja Walkeri maakonnas Gruusias.

Lahing oli viimane konflikt liidu armee ja Chickamauga kampaania ründealgatuse mässuliste vastu Gruusia loodeosas ja Tennessee kaguosas.

Föderaalsel poolel pidas lahingu kindralmajor William Rosecransi juhtimisel Cumberlandi armee, Tennessee konföderatsiooni armeed juhtis aga kindral Braxton Bragg.

Taust

1863. aasta suvel olid Rosecrans ja tema armee pidanud edukat kampaaniat Konföderatsiooni vägede vastu Braxtoni juhtimisel Tennessee kesklinnas ning mässuliste armee oli taganenud Chattanoogasse. Nii president Abraham Lincoln kui ka ülemjuhataja kindralmajor Henry W. Halleck andsid Rosecransile korralduse rünnakut jätkata ja konföderatsioonidelt Chattanooga, mis oli oluline strateegiline linn.

Bragg oli omalt poolt veennud konföderatsiooni liidreid täiendama oma armeed teiste piirkondade vägedega, eesmärgiga mitte ainult kaitsta Chattanoogat, vaid ka alustada vasturünnakut liidu armee vastu. See samm suurendas tema armeed 52 000 mehelt veidi alla 70 000, ületades Rosecransi armee umbes 10 000 mehe võrra.

Rosecrans tunnistas, et presidendi juhiste täitmisel on tal mõningaid raskusi. Ründav samm tähendaks, et tema väed pidid ületama Cumberlandi platoo, raske maastik halva kvaliteediga teedega. Lisaks takistaksid tema varustusliinid tagantpoolt mäed.

Rosecrans tahtis pealetungi edasi lükata, kuni kõik vajalikud varud olid paigas, et ta ei peaks liikvel olles muretsema nende hankimise pärast. Ta tahtis kolimist 17. augustini edasi lükata, kuid Halleck nõudis, et ta edasi viivitaks. Rosecrans hakkas aga edasi liikuma alles 16. augustil.

Kampaania plaan

Rosecransi plaan oli liikuda edasi Tennessee jõe äärde ja seejärel koguda rohkem varusid, enne kui üritati seda ümber pöörata. Ta tundis, et vastasjõudude teise poole hoidmine oleks võimatu jõge ületada, nii et tema plaan oli luua ümbersuunamine, mis meelitaks Braggi väed Chattanoogast põhja pool asuvatesse kokkupõrgetesse ja kasutaks neid kui peamist armeed. tiirutas jõge erinevates kohtades mitu miili allavoolu.

Jõe ääres oli plaan rünnata linna lääne, lõuna ja kagu poolt. Kagu poolt tehtud rünnak annaks liidu armeele kontrolli raudteeliini üle, mis ühendas Chattanooga Atlantaga. See raudtee oli konföderatsioonide jaoks elutähtis varustusliin ja selle võtmine tähendaks, et Braggi sõjavägi peab Chattanoogast taanduma või proovima linna kaitsta ilma varustusallikata.

Kampaania

Liidu armeel kulus jõeni jõudmiseks 23. augustini. Rosecrans hakkas oma pettust ellu viima ja saatis osa oma armeest Chattanoogast põhja poole. Tundub, et pettus on toiminud ja Bragg arvas, et ületada üritatakse Chattanoogast põhja pool.

29. augustil õnnestus esimestel liidu vägedel ületada Tennessee jõgi Caperton ’s parvlaeval. Järgmisel päeval toimus Shellmoundis teine ​​ja kolmas ülesõit. 31. augustil toimus Battle Creekis neljas ülekäik ja 4. septembriks olid kõik Chattanooga rünnakus osalevad liidu sõdurid edukalt jõe ületanud.

Kui Bragg mõistis, et ei saa linna kinni hoida, tõmbus ta Gruusiasse Lafayette'i ja liidu armee sisenes Chattanoogasse 9. septembril. Tema plaani tõttu rünnata mitmel rindel olid Rosecrans ’ väed laiali. Sellegipoolest arvas ta endiselt, et Braggi mehed on segaduses ja käskis esialgu mõnel oma sõduril taganevaid konföderaate jälitada. Hiljem otsustas ta selle taktika vastu ja otsustas selle asemel oma väed koondada.

Bragg koondas ka oma vägesid ja oli 15. septembriks otsustanud, et tema armee jaoks on parim võimalus alustada pealetungi Chattanooga tagasivõtmiseks. Ta hakkas oma vägesid Chickamauga Creeki viima.

Chickamauga lahing

Lahing algas 19. septembril ja toimus mitmel rindel paljudes erinevates kohtades. Liidu armee sai erinevates kohtumistes kiiresti initsiatiivi ja abivägede saabudes olid konföderaadid sunnitud mitmes piirkonnas taanduma. Päeva edenedes suutsid konföderaadid siiski föderaalse pealetungi peatada ja Bragg tundis, et tema pool on paremas seisus ja on tekitanud liidu vägedele märkimisväärset kahju.

Bragg plaanis alustada uut rünnakut föderaalväelaste vastu 20. septembri koidikul, kuid side katkemine tähendas, et koidikurünnakut ei saanud toimuda. Tugevduste saabumine tähendas, et Konföderatsioonid olid liidu vägede arvust palju suuremad ja Rosecrans mõistis, et tal ei ole võimalust rünnakut alustada.

Konföderatsiooni rünnaku hilinemine võimaldas liidu armeel oodatavaks tegevuseks paremini valmistuda ja Bragg teatas hiljem, et see viivitus oli peamine põhjus, miks tema väed ei põhjustanud liidu armeele tõsist lüüasaamist.

Kuna Konföderatsiooni armeel oli eelis, ei jäänud Rosecransil muud üle, kui koondada oma kaitse Chattanooga, soovitas ta oma hajutatud armeel taanduda, pidades silmas konföderatsiooni rünnakuid. Rosecrans käskis oma meestel alustada üldist taandumist Chattanoogasse, mis tähendab Chickamauga lahingu lõppu ja konföderatsiooni võitu.

Tulemused ja tagajärjed

Mõlemal poolel olid lahingus ohvrid suured. Föderaalsel armeel oli 1657 surmaga lõppenud ohvrit, 9 756 haavatut ja veel 4 757 inimest kadunud või vangi võetud. Konföderatsiooni poolel hukkus 2312, sai haavata 14 674 inimest ja 1464 kadus või võeti vangi. Ohvrite arv oli suuruselt teine ​​kogu kodusõja ajal, mida ületasid ainult inimohvrid Gettysburgis.

Braggi aeglane rünnak muutis lõunamaalaste taktikalise võidu strateegiliseks kaotuseks, kuna föderaalvägedel lubati Chattanoogasse põgeneda. Pärast Chickamauga lahingut piiras Bragg Chattanooga, kuid see oli tugevalt kindlustatud ja föderaalväed suutsid kontrolli hoida. Vaatamata sellele, et nad ei saanud varusid vastu võtta, suutsid liidu väed Chattanoogas kinni pidada, kuni kindralmajor Ulysses S. Grant saabus koos leevendava jõuga, mis murdis novembri lõpus Braggi piiramisrõnga.


Gruusia rahvuskaardi ajalugu

1863. aasta septembri õhtul saatis föderaaljuhataja kindralmajor William Rosecrans 14. korpuse ülema kindralmajor George Thomase Lafayette'i teed pidi põhja poole. Tema kavatsus oli laiendada oma kaitseliini ja säilitada föderaalse armee taandumisjoon põhja poole Chattanooga. 19. septembri hommikuks olid Thomas ’s mehed asunud Kelly talu põldudele. [1] Saanud föderaalkolonel Daniel McCookilt teate isoleeritud mässuliste brigaadi kohta, mis oli lõksus jõe lääneosas, saatis Thomas kindralmajor John Brannoni kolmanda diviisi, et olukorda edasi arendada. Brannon, karjääriväe sõdur ja Mehhiko Ameerika sõjaveteran, saatsid käsu mehed liikuma saada. Kiiresti maha kohvi ja pooleldi küpsetatud hommikusöök, hakkasid Brannoni mehed liikuma itta. Kolonel John Croxtoni brigaad kolis Brothertoni teele ja kolonel Ferdinand Van Derveer orienteerus Reedil ja#8217s Bridge Roadil.

Avamistoimingud 19. septembril 1863. Hal Jesperseni kaardi, www.cwmaps.com.


Konföderatsiooni väed, kellega McCook oli kokku puutunud, olid 1. Gruusia ratsaväelased, kes olid visanud rünnakuid Jay ’s Millist lõuna pool, umbes ½ miili Reed ’s Bridge'ist läänes. McCook, olles juba saanud korralduse taganeda, jättis väljaku grusiinidele, enne kui teatas oma leidudest Thomasile. Seega, selleks ajaks, kui Thomas ’s brigaadid isoleeritud Konföderatsiooni brigaadi otsima suundusid, olid grusiinid rüseluses Reedi ja#8217s Bridge Roadil valmis kaklusjärjekorras, et olla valmis vastu võtma Van Derveer ’s skirmishers. Liikudes idast läbi metsa vaid veerand miili lõuna pool 1. Gruusiat, kohtas Croxton ’s kümnendast Indianast koosnev kaklusjoon Brigi ratsavägesid. Kindral Nathan Bedford Forrest. Croxton saatis kullereid Brannonile tema rindele sattumisest teatama ja hakkas oma jalaväerügemente manööverdama, mis on metsas maastikul keeruline protsess. Vahepeal käskis Forrest oma ratsaväel jalaväe toetuse väljakutsumisel maha tulla ja maad hoida.

Saanud ühe Forresti ja#8217 sõnumitest, sai kindralmajor William T. Walker, kes juhtis konföderatsiooni reservkorpust, käskis kaaslasel grusiinil kolonel Claudius Wilsonil kiirustada oma brigaadiga kontakti kuuldes. Walker, nagu ka Brannon, oli armee sõdur ja Mehhiko sõjaveteran ning sarnaselt Brannoniga oli tal peagi kaks brigaadi, kes suundusid Jay ’s Milli lähedale Texase brigaadina. Kindral Matthew Ector jäi Wilsoni taha.

Konföderatsiooni ratsavägi hoidis Wilsonit piisavalt kaua, et saata oma rügemendid Croxtoni ähvardamiseks. Wilsoni ’s rügemendid, 25., 29. ja 30. Gruusia koos esimese Gruusia pataljoni Sharpshootersi ja 4. Louisiana Sharpshootersiga surusid Croxtoni rida, mis paindus, kuid ei purunenud. [2] Järgmise kahe ja poole tunni jooksul imetakse brigaadid Jay ’s Milli kasvavasse võitlusse.

Segadus ja tugevdamine

See tegevus tekitas muret nii Rosecransis kui ka tema konföderatsiooni vastases kindral Braxton Braggis. Braggi lahinguplaan kutsus 25 000 meest ründama föderaaljooni mööda Lafayette'i teed, mis asub Jay ’s Millist lõuna pool. Tooma ootamatu kohalolek põhjas ohustas Braggi paremat külge. Vahepeal oli Rosecrans käskinud Thomase kaitsepositsioonidele, et tema alluv astuks diviisi tundmatu tugevusega vaenlasega.

Enne Lafayette Roadi pealetungi alustamist otsustas Bragg oma külje Jay ’s Milli lähedusse kindlustada. Ta saatis oma reservkorpuse ja kindralmajor Ben Cheathami ja#8217 -de diviisi viis brigaadi. Vahepeal nihutasid Rosecrans jaoskonnad 20. ja 21. korpusest põhja poole, et toetada Thomast. Nii föderaal- kui ka konföderatsiooniülemad saatsid üksusi, arvestamata käsuliini, juhtimis- ja juhtimiskatkestusi, mida halvendab veelgi maastik ja nähtavus.

Tegevused 19. septembri pärastlõunal 1863. Hal Jesperseni kaart, www.cwmaps.com.


Võitlus kolib lõunasse

Cheatham ’s 7000 konföderatsiooni põrkasid vahetult pärast keskpäeva föderaaldivisjonidesse Brocki talu lähedusse. [3] Pärast Cheathami toimepanemist saatis Bragg kindralmajor A. P. Stewarti juhtimisel kolmanda diviisi ja käskis tal relvade heli järgi liikuda. [4] Stewart saabus Cheatham ’s liinidest lõunasse veidi enne kella 14.00. õigel ajal, et stabiliseerida kõikuvat Konföderatsiooni joont. Stewartiga liikusid 4. Georgia Sharpshooters ja 37. Georgia jalavägi. [5] Grusiinid suutsid kindralmajor Van Cleve ’s diviisi kangekaelsed föderaalkaitsjad oma positsioonidelt Lafayette Roadilt välja tõrjuda. Olles võtnud palju maad, oli Stewartil oma positsiooni säilitamiseks ebapiisavaid mehi ja ta oli sunnitud Lafayette Roadist ida poole taganema. [6]

Grusiinid sisenevad surma kraavi

Brig. Kindral Hans Christian Heg. NPS

Soovides leida vaenlase äärt, kohtus Rosecrans ebatõenäolise nimega Brigiga. Kindral Jefferson Davis ja juhatas teda viima oma diviisi üle Viniardi välja, kaugel kaasatud vägedest lõuna pool. Oodates Konföderatsiooni vasakpoolset tiiba, kohtas Davis selle asemel Braggi ja#8217-de põhiosa-25 000 inimest. Järgmise kahe ja poole tunni jooksul keerles lahingu kõige metsikum lahing Viniardi väljal, kuni föderaaljoon varises kokku kell 16.30. ja virmalised saadeti otse üle Lafayette'i tee. Üritades oma kolmandat brigaadi koguda, sõitis Norras sündinud kolonel Hans Christian Heg mööda oma meeste rindejoont, manitsedes neid isikliku julguse eeskujuga. Kui ta hobusega ringi sõitis, tabas Hegi kuul, mis läbistas ta kõhu. Ta keris haavast, kuid hoidis sadulast kinni ja jäi oma meestele. [7]

Põgenevaid föderaalvägesid jälitades said brigi grusiinid. Kindral Henry Benning valas võrgu pärast võrku taganevate föderaalsõdurite selga. Sgt. W.R. Houghton 2. Gruusiast tuletas tegevust meelde:

“Me seisime seal ja#8230 tulistasime nad alla , kelle mehed olid relvastatud seitsme kuulipildujaga. Benning ’s grusiinid lõigati tükkideks. 1200 grusiinist sai 490 ohvrit. Föderaalid olid samuti kannatada saanud. Langenute seas oli ka Heg, kes järgmisel hommikul välihaiglas oma haava tagajärgedesse sureb. [9]

Monument 2. Gruusia jalaväele Chickamaugas. Foto: major William Carraway


Kell 18.00 olid võitlused enamasti lõppenud Viniardi väljal, kus oli võistelnud 15 brigaadi. Pärast peaaegu 12 tundi kestnud lahingut lõpetati võitlus, välja arvatud haruldane öine rünnak, mille algatas kindralmajor Patrick Cleburne'i diviis üle Winfrey välja. Mõlema armee mehed sättisid end rahutuks ööks. Vaatamata külmakraadidele langenud temperatuuridele oli mõlema armee sõduritel keelatud lõkke tegemine vaenlase vägede läheduse tõttu.

Kindralleitnant James Longstreet'i väljakule saabumisega korraldas Bragg oma armee kaheks tiibaks. Longstreet sai vasakpoolset tiiba, kindralmajor Leonidas Polk aga paremat. Braggi lahinguplaan jäi muutmata: ründa ja aja föderaalarmeed lõunasse, eemale oma taandumisjoonest Chattanoogasse.

Lafayette'i tee vastasküljel uuris Rosecrans, ilma magamata, oma jooni, kavatsedes toetada Thomas ’ jooni põhja poole. Rosecrans nõustuks Thomasiga jõustama otsust, millel on saatuslikud tagajärjed lahingu teisel päeval.

Chickamauga kolonel Peyton Colquitti monument.
Foto: major William Carraway
Tegevus jätkub, föderaalne põhi on ohus

Kuigi Bragg kavatses rünnata koidikul, sai konföderatsiooni rünnak alguse alles kell 9.30, kui kindralleitnant D.H. Hilli korpus tabas Thomast. Ehkki kahel Hill ’s Corpi brigaadil õnnestus osa nende liinidest veriselt tagasi lüüa, õnnestus Thomasel#8217s vasak külg pöörata. Konföderatsioonid sõitsid Lafayette'i teed mööda lõunasse Kelly Fieldi ja ähvardasid kogu föderaalpositsiooni. Rosecrans, tajudes ohtu, nihutas jõud lõunast ja kella 11.30ks sunniti Hill tagasi, kuid mitte enne Brig. Kindralmajor Patrick Cleburne'i diviisi brigaadiülem kindral James Deshler tapeti, teda tabas suurtükivägi. [10] Hilli toetuseks kolumn Peyton Colquitt, kes juhtis Gruusia ja Lõuna -Karoliinide brigaadi Gist ’s, sai surmavalt haavata. Colquitt juhtis varem 46. Gruusia jalaväerügementi. [11]

Kindralleitnant Longstreet'i rünnak. Hal Jesperseni kaardi, www.cwmaps.com.


Hill ’ edu valmistas muret Rosecransile, kes hakkas lisavägesid põhja suunama. Ümberpaigutamise käigus paljastas föderaal nende liinis kogu jaotuse ulatuse. Just siis, kui lõhe avanes, alustas Longstreet lõhe ründamist. Davise ja kindralmajor Phillip Sheridani diviisid purustas 12 000 hoogsalt tõusnud konföderatsiooni.

Brig. Kindral W. H Lytle
Sheridani ja#8217 esimese brigaadi juht oli brig. Kindral William Lytle, Ohio osariik, oli Lytle enne sõda olnud kuulus luuletaja ning populaarne põhjas ja lõunas. Alabamalaste brigaadi poolt surutud Lytle oli üles monteeritud ja juhtinud oma vägede liikumist, kui musketipall teda selga lõi. Ta jäi sadulasse ja jätkas korralduste väljastamist, kuni sai löögi pähe ja pritsis verd staabiohvitseri vormiriietusele. Lytle ’s mehed üritasid teda konfliktist eemale hoida, kuid ta palus end jätta väljakule, kus ta aegus. [12] Edasi liikudes tundsid konföderatsiooni sõdurid Lytle ära ja moodustasid tema keha ümber valvuri. Uudised levisid hallide ridade vahel. Praegu on Konföderatsiooni brigaad. Kindral Patton Anderson seisis leinast üle, seisis Lytle ees. Anderson ja Lytle olid enne Ameerika kodusõda head sõbrad. Nad lahkusid sõbralikult Charlestonis aastal 1860, lubades, et miski ei sega nende sõprust. Nuttes eemaldas Anderson Lytle ’s abielusõrmuse ja kinnitas juuksesalgu, et see oma lesele koju saata. [13]

Kuna lüüasaamine taandus kiiresti rütmiks, aeti Rosecrans, tema staabiülem ja tulevane president James Garfield ning kolm korpuse ülemat välja. Üks kolmandik föderaalarmeest lakkas võitlusjõuna eksisteerimast. Kui mitte kindralmajor Thomase ja Snodgrassi mäe kindlat seisukohta, oleks võinud kogu föderaalvägi üksikasjalikult hävitada. Thomas pidas piisavalt kaua, et säilitada föderaalarmee, enne kui taganes Rossville'i põhja poole. Sellest hoolimata võtsid pealetungivad konföderaadid kinni sajad föderaalsõdurid.

Kindralmajor George Thomase meeleheitel seisukoht. Hal Jesperseni kaardi, www.cwmaps.com.


21. septembri hommikul avastasid konföderaadid, et föderaalvägi on minema libisenud. Rosecrans taastas oma baasi Chattanoogas, kuid tema ametiaeg armee komandörina oli lõppemas. Veidi rohkem kui nädala pärast asendatakse Rosecrans kõva võitlusega lääne kindraliga Ulysses Grant.

Kuigi ta oli tehniliselt võitja, oli Bragg ebaõnnestunud Rosecransi hävitamise eesmärgil. Ta jätkas oma alluvate ülematega tülitsemist kuni novembrini, mil esitas väljakutse föderaalväele Chattanooga kontrolli alla saamiseks.

Chickamauga kaasatud 125 000 sõdurist sai rohkem kui 34 000 ohvrit. Kuid aastaid hiljem lahingut meenutades märkas D.H. Hill, et Chickamauga tõeline ohver oli lootus.

“Mulle tundub, et lõunasõduri elanit pole pärast Chickamauga kordagi nähtud, sest hiilgav kriips, mis teda eristas, oli igaveseks kadunud. Ta võitles jämedalt kuni viimase ajani, kuid pärast Chickamauga, meeleheite tuhinaga ja ilma lootusetusteta. See ‘ viljatu võit ’ pitseeris Lõuna Konföderatsiooni saatuse. ” [14]

[1] Powell, David A. ja David A. Friedrichs. Chickamauga kaardid: Chickamauga kampaania atlas, sealhulgas Tullahoma operatsioonid, 22. juuni - 23. september 1863. New York: Savas Beatie, 2009. 48


Kirjeldus Chickamauga lahingust

Lesk Glenni hämaras palkmajas laotati sõjaväe kaart. Murelikud Cumberlandi armee liidu ohvitserid tunglesid ümber, kui kindralmajor William S. Rosecrans, nende räsitud ülem, palus hinnata olukorda, mis seisis tema vägede ees 19. septembri 1863. aasta öösel. Pühapäeva hommik tooks kindlasti kaasa suurema osa sellest päevast Chickamauga oja kallastel keerutanud metsikute lahingute uuendamine.

Liidu armee oli pikal lahinguliinil raskelt surutud, kuid keeldus murdmast kindral Braxton Braggi Tennessee konföderatsiooni armee korduvate rünnakute survel. Kindralmajor George H. Thomase XIV korpus oli kandnud raskemaid lahinguid. Olles oma igapäevatööst väsinud, istus Thomas toolile ja napsutas. Nagu tema tavaks oli, küsis Rosecrans omakorda igalt ohvitserilt nõu tulevase võitluse kohta. Iga kord, kui tema nime mainiti, ärkas Thomas enne uinumist piisavalt kaua, et öelda: "Ma tugevdaksin vasakpoolset".

Kuigi Rosecransi armee oli verine, oli selle liin endiselt katkematu ja otsus võeti lahing 20. Thomast tugevdatakse ja süüdistatakse vasakpoolsuse hoidmises, mis ületas LaFayette'i tee, mis on oluline ühendus strateegiliselt olulise Chattanooga, Tenn., 10 miili põhja pool. Kindralmajor Alexander McCooki XX korpus sulgeks Thomase paremal, samas kui Thomas Crittendeni XXI korpus oleks reservis. Öösel teatas telgede helin ootavatele konföderatsioonidele, et nende vaenlane tugevdab meeleheitlikult tema positsioone.

Cumberlandi armee oli vapralt võidelnud ja liidu ülemate seas oli põhjust optimismiks. Pärast talvekvartalist väljumist oli Rosecrans suurepäraselt manööverdanud Braggi ja tema armee Tennesseest välja ning vallutanud Chattanooga, praktiliselt laskmata. Oma ülima edu hetkel tegi Rosecrans aga ühe vea: ta arvas Braggi korrapärast tagasitõmbumist pea ees taganemiseks ja jagas oma jõu järsult kolmeks tiibaks. Kui need eraldi väed liikusid pimesi läbi mäekurude Põhja -Gruusia maapiirkonda „pekstud” vaenlase tagaajamiseks, olid mõlemad liiga kaugel, et vaenlase rünnaku korral teistele tuge pakkuda. Kui föderaalväed olid võõral maastikul laiali üle 40 miili laiuse rinde, peatas Bragg oma väed LaFayette'is, Ga., 25 miili Chattanoogast lõuna pool.

Bragg mõistis, kui suur on tema võimalus tegeleda üksikasjalikult liidu armee iga tiivaga ja võita konföderatsiooni jaoks vapustav võit. Ta käskis oma alluvatel alustada rünnakuid hajutatud föderaalüksuste vastu, kuid need reageerisid aeglaselt - isegi koostöövõimetult. Suhted Braggi ja tema leitnantide vahel olid tõsiselt halvenenud pärast küsitavaid taganemisi Perryville'ist, Ky. The lack of cooperation in the higher echelons of Bragg’s army contributed greatly to the squandering of a chance for one of the most lopsided victories of the war.

In the nick of time, and with substantial help from his enemy, Rosecrans collected his troops in the vicinity of Lee and Gordon’s Mill along the banks of a sluggish little stream the Cherokee Indians had named ‘Chickamauga’ after the savage tribe that had lived there many years earlier. Now, two great armies would prove once again that ‘River of Death’ was an accurate translation. In the vicious but indecisive fighting of September 19, both Rosecrans and Bragg committed more and more troops to a struggle which began as little more than a skirmish near one of the crude bridges that crossed the creek. Though little was accomplished the first day, the stage was set for a second day of reckoning.

The importance of the war in the West was not lost on the Confederate high command. Already three brigades of the Army of Northern Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood, had arrived by rail to reinforce Bragg. Lieutenant General James Longstreet, Robert E. Lee’s ‘Old Warhorse’ and second in command, was due at any time with the balance of his I Corps. These veteran troops would give Bragg an advantage few Confederate commanders would know during the war–numerically superiority. As the Virginia troops arrived, Bragg’s army swelled to 67,000 men, outnumbering the Federals by 10,000.

While Rosecrans convened his council of war at the Widow Glenn’s, Longstreet was searching for the elusive Bragg. Bragg unaccountably had failed to send a guide to meet him, and after a two-hour wait, Longstreet struck out with his staff toward the sound of gunfire.

As they groped in the darkness, Longstreet and his companions were met with the challenge. ‘Who comes there?’ ‘Friends,’ they responded quickly. When the soldier was asked to what unit he belonged, he replied with numbers for his brigade and division. Since Confederate soldiers used their commanders’ names to designate their outfits, Longstreet knew he had stumbled into a Federal picket. In a voice loud enough for the sentry to hear, the general said calmly, ‘Let us ride down a little and find a better crossing.’ The Union soldier fired, but the group made good its escape.

When Longstreet finally reached the safety of the Confederate lines, he found Bragg asleep in an ambulance. The overall commander was awakened, and the two men spent an hour discussing the plan for the following day. Bragg’s strategy would continue to be what he hoped to achieve on the 19th. He intended to turn the Union left, placing his army between Rosecrans and Chattanooga by cutting the LaFayette Road. Then, the Confederates would drive the Army of the Cumberland into the natural trap of McLemore’s Cove and destroy it, a piece at a time.

Bragg now divided his force into two wings, the left commanded by Longstreet and the right by Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk, the ‘fighting bishop’ of the Confederacy. Polk would command the divisions of John C. Breckinridge, who had serves as vice president of the United States under President James Buchanan, and Patrick Cleburne, a hard-fighting Irishman. Also under Polk were the divisions of Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, States Rights Gist and St. John R. Liddell. Breckinridge and Cleburne were under the direct supervision of another lieutenant general, D.H. Hill. Longstreet was given the divisions of Evander Law and Joseph Kershaw of Hood’s corps, A.P. Stewart and William Preston of Simon Bolivar Buckner’s corps, and the divisions of Bushrod Johnson and Thomas Hindman.

Breckinridge and Cleburne were to begin the battle with a assault on Thomas at the first light. The attack was to proceed along the line, with each unit going into action following the one on its right. Bragg’s order subordinating Hill to Polk precipitated some costly confusion among Southern commanders as the time for the planned attack came and went. Somehow, Hill had been lost in the shuffle and never received the order to attack. Bragg found Polk calmly reading a newspaper and waiting for his breakfast two miles behind the lines. Polk had simply assumed that Bragg himself would inform Hill of the battle plan.

When the Confederate tide finally surged forward at 9:45 a.m., Thomas was ready with the divisions of Absalom Baird, Richard Johnson, John Palmer and John Reynolds. Breckinridge’s three brigades hit the extreme left of the Union line, two of them advancing smartly all the way to the LaFayette Road before running into reinforcements under Brig. Gen. John Beatty, whose 42nd and 88th Indiana regiments steadied the Federal line momentarily. A redoubled Rebel effort forced the 42nd back onto the 88th, and several Union regiments were obliged to shift their fire 180 degrees to meet the thrust of enemy troops in their rear. Fresh Federal soldiers appeared and finally pushed Breckinridge back.

Cleburne’s troops followed Breckinridge’s assault and suffered a similar fate. The hard-pressed Rebels pulled back 400 yards to the relative safety of a protecting hill. As he inspected the ammunition supply of his men before ordering them forward again, one of Cleburne’s ablest brigadiers, James Deshler, was killed by an exploding shell that ripped his heart from his chest. Seeking shelter in a grove of tall pines, the Confederates traded round for round but could not carry the breastworks.

Thomas’ hastily constructed breastworks had proven to be of tremendous value, but several of the Union regiments suffered casualties of 30 percent or higher. The brigades of Colonel Joseph Dodge, Brig. Gen. John H. King, Colonel Benjamin Scribner and Brig. Gen. John C. Starkweather had held the extreme left of the Union line since the day before and had been engaged for over an hour when Cleburne’s attacks gained their full fury. For all their seeming futility, the Confederate assaults against Rosecrans’ left did have one positive result. Thomas’ urgent pleas for assistance were causing Rosecrans to thin his right in order to reinforce the left through the thick, confusing tangle of forest.

At the height of the fighting on the left, one of Thomas’ aides, Captain Sanford Kellogg, was heading to Rosecrans with another of Thomas/ almost constant requests for additional troops. Kellogg noticed what appeared to be wide gap between the divisions of Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood on the right and John Reynolds on the left. In actuality, the heavily wooded area between Reynolds and Wood was occupied by Brig. Gen. John Brannan’s division. When Kellogg rode by, Brannan’s force was simply obscured by late-summer foliage.

When Kellogg informed Rosecrans of the phantom gap, the latter reacted accordingly. In his haste to avoid what might be catastrophe for his army, Rosecrans did not confirm the existence of the gap but, instead, issued what might have been the single most disastrous order of the Civil War. ‘Headquarters Department of Cumberland, September 20th–10:45 a.m.,’ the communiqué read. ‘Brigadier-General Wood, Commanding Division: The general commanding directs that you close up on Reynolds as fast as possible and support him.’

Earlier that morning, Wood had received a severe public tongue-lashing from Rosecrans for not moving his troops fast enough. ‘What is the meaning of this, sir? You have disobeyed my specific orders,’ Rosecrans had shouted. ‘By your damnable negligence you are endangering the safety of the entire army, and, by God, I will not tolerate it! Move your division at once as I have instructed, or the consequences will not be pleasant for yourself.’

With Rosecrans’ stinging rebuke still echoing in his ears, Wood was not about to be accused of moving too slowly again, even though this new order confused him. Wood knew there was no gap in the Union line. Brannan had been on his left all along. To comply with the commanding general’s order, Wood was required to pull his two brigades out of line, march around Brannan’s rear, and effect a junction with Reynolds’ right. In carrying out this maneuver, Wood created a gap where none had existed.

Simultaneously, Maj. Gen. Phil Sheridan’s men were ordered out of line on Wood’s right and sent to bolster the threatened left wing, and Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis’ division was ordered into the line to fill the quarter-mile hole vacated by Wood. Almost three full divisions of the Federal right wing were in motion at the same time, in the face of a heavily concentrated enemy.

Now, completely by chance, in one of those incredible situations on which turn the fortunes of men and nations, Longstreet unleashed a 23,000-man sledgehammer attack directed right at the place where Wood had been moments earlier.

At 11:30 a.m., the gray-clad legion sallied forth from the forest across LaFayette Road into the fields surrounding the little log cabin of the Brotherton family. Almost immediately it came under fire from Brannan’s men, still posted in the woods across the road. Brannan checked Stewart in his front and poured an unsettling fire into the right flank of the advancing Confederate column. Davis’ Federals, arriving from the other side, hit the Rebels on their left while his artillery began tearing holes in the ranks of the attackers.

Johnson soon realized that the heavy resistance was coming from the flanks and the firing of scattered batteries. His front was virtually clear of opposition, and he smartly ordered his troops forward at the double-quick. As he emerged from the treeline that marked Wood’s former position, Johnson saw Davis’ troops rushing forward to his left, while two of Sheridan’s brigades were on their way north towards Thomas. On Johnson’s right, Wood’s two brigades were still in the act of closing on Reynolds.

While Johnson wheeled to the right to take Wood’s trailing brigade and Brannan from behind, Hindman bowled into Davis and Sheridan, throwing them back into confusion. When Brannan gave way, Brig. Gen. H.P. Van Cleve’s division was left exposed and joined the flight from the field. In a flash of gray lightning, the entire Union right disintegrated.

The onrushing Confederates were driving a wedge far into the Federal rear. They crossed the Glenn-Kelly Road just behind the Brotherton field, rushed through heavy stands of timber, and burst onto the open ground of the cultivated fields of the Dyer farm. One Confederate regiment overran a troublesome Union battery that had been firing from the Dyer peach orchard, capturing all nine of its guns.

Johnson paused to survey the progress of the attack. Everywhere, it seemed, Union soldiers were on the run, fleeing in panic over the countryside and down the Dry Valley Road toward McFarland’s Gap, the only available avenue to reach the safety of Chattanooga. ‘The scene now presented was unspeakably grand,’ the amazed general recalled.

The brave but often reckless Hood caught up with Johnson at the Dyer farm and urged him forward. ‘Go ahead and keep ahead of everything,’ Hood shouted, his left arm still in a sling from a wound received 10 weeks earlier at Gettysburg. Moments later, Hood was hit again. This time, a Minie bullet shattered his right leg. He fell from his horse and into the waiting arms of members of his old Texas Brigade, who carried him to a field hospital, where the leg was amputated. Meanwhile, Longstreet was ecstatic as his troops swept the men in blue before them. ‘They have fought their last man, and he is running,’ he exclaimed.

Only two Federal units offered resistance of greater than company strength once the rout was on. Intrepid Colonel John T. Wilder and his brigade of mounted infantry assailed Hindman’s exposed flank and drove Brig. Gen. Arthur Manigault’s brigade back nearly a mile from the area of the breakthrough. Wilder’s stouthearted troopers from Indiana and Illinois were able to delay a force many times their size by employing the Spencer repeating rifle.

Sheridan’s only remaining brigade, under Brig. Gen. William Lytle, a well-known author and poet, was in the vicinity of the Widow Glenn house when Hindman’s Confederates began streaming through the woods. A commander much admired by his troops, Lytle was famous for his prewar poem, ‘Antony and Cleopatra,’ which was popular in the sentimental society of the day and familiar to soldiers on both sides.

Lytle found his brigade found his brigade almost completely surrounded by Rebels. With the prospect of a successful withdrawal slim, he gallantly ordered his men to charge. He told those near him that if they had to die, they would ‘die in their tracks with their harness on.’ As he led his troops forward, he shouted: ‘If I must die, I will die as a gentleman. All right, men, we can die but once. This is the time and place. Let us charge.’ Lytle was shot in the spine during the advance but managed to stay on his horse. Then, he was struck almost simultaneously by three bullets, one of which hit him in the face. As the doomed counterattack collapsed around him, the steadfast Lytle died.

Assistant Secretary of War Charles Dana was with the Army of Cumberland at Chickamauga to continue a series of reports to Washington on the progress of the Western war. Exhausted by the rapid succession of events the prior day, Dana had found a restful place that fateful morning and settled down in the grass to sleep. When Bushrod Johnson’s soldiers came crashing trough the Union line, he was suddenly wide awake. ‘I was awakened by the most infernal noise I ever heard,’ he remembered. ‘I sat up on the grass and the first thing I saw was General Rosecrans crossing himself–he was a very devout Catholic. ‘Hello!’ I said to myself, ‘if the general is crossing himself, we are in a desperate situation.”

Just then Rosecrans rode up and offered Dana some advice. ‘If you care to live any longer,’ the general said, ‘get away from here.’ The whistling of bullets grew steadily closer, and Dana now looked upon a terrible sight. ‘I had no sooner collected my thoughts and looked around toward the front, where all this din came from, than I saw our lines break and melt way like leaves before the wind.’ He spurred his horse toward Chattanooga, where he telegraphed the news of the disaster to Washington that night.

With time, the Confederate onslaught gained momentum, sweeping before it not only the Federal rank and file but also Rosecrans himself and two of his corps commanders, Crittenden and McCook. After negotiating the snarl of men, animals and equipment choking the Dry Valley Road, Rosecrans and his chief of staff, Brig. Gen. and future president James A. Garfield, stopped for a moment. Off in the distance, the sounds of battle were barely audible. Rosecrans and Garfield put their ears to the ground but were still unable to satisfy themselves as to the fate of Thomas and the left wing of the Union army.

Originally, Rosecrans had decided to go to Thomas personally and ordered Garfield to Chattanooga to prepare the city’s defenses. Garfield disagreed. He felt that Rosecrans should supervise the placement of Chattanooga’s defenders, while the chief of staff would find out what happened to Thomas. Rosecrans assented and started toward Chattanooga while Garfield moved in the direction of the battlefield. By the time he reached his destination, Rosecrans was distraught. He was unable to walk without assistance and sat with his head in his hands.

Had he known the overall situation, Rosecrans might have been in a better state of mind–if only slightly. Thomas, to the great good fortune of the Union cause, was far from finished. Those troops which had not fled the field had gathered on the slope of a heavily wooded spur that shot eastward from Missionary Ridge. From this strategic location, named Snodgrass Hill after a local family, Thomas might protect both the bulk of the army withdrawing through the ridge at McFarland’s Gap and the original positions of the Union left–if only his patchwork line could hold.

An assortment of Federal troops, from individuals to brigade strength, came together for a last stand. Virtually all command organization was gone, but the weary soldiers fell into line hurriedly to meet an advancing foe flush with victory. The Rebels drew up around the new defensive position, and a momentary lull settled over the field.

Their goal clearly before them, the emboldened Confederates then rose in unison and assailed their enemy with renewed vigor. They pressed to within feet of the Union positions, only to be thrown back again and again, leaving scores of dead and wounded on the ground behind them.

With three of Longstreet’s divisions pressing him nearly to the breaking point, Thomas noticed a cloud of dust and a large body of troops moving toward him. Was it friend or foe?

When the advancing column neared, Thomas had his answer. It was Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger with two brigades of the Union army’s reserve corps under Brig. Gen. James Steedman. These fresh but untried troops brought not only fire support but badly needed ammunition to the defenders of Snodgrass Hill, who had resorted to picking the cartridge boxes of the dead and wounded. For two days, Granger had guarded the Rossville Road north of the battlefield. By Sunday afternoon, he was itching to get into the fight. Finally, when he could stand it no longer, he bellowed, ‘I am going to Thomas, orders or no orders.’

At one point, the marauding Rebels actually seized the crest of Snodgrass Hill, planting their battle flag upon it. But thanks to numerous instances of individual heroism, the stubborn Yankees heaved them back. No single act of bravery was more spectacular than that of Steedman himself, who grabbed the regimental colors of a unit breaking for the rear and shouted: ‘Go back boys, go back. but the flag can’t go with you!’

As daylight began to fade, Thomas rode to the left to supervise the withdrawal of his remaining forces from the field, leaving Granger in command on Snodgrass Hill. Longstreet had committed Preston’s division in an all-out final attempt to carry the position, and the movement toward McFarland’s Gap began while Preston’s assaults were in progress. The protectors of Snodgrass Hill were out of ammunition again, and Granger’s order to fix bayonets and charge flashed along the lines of the 21st and 89th Ohio and the 22nd Michigan, the last three regiments left there. The desperate charge accomplished little save a few extra minutes for the rest of the army. While the last 563 Union soldiers on the hill were rounded up by Preston’s Confederates, the long night march to Chattanooga began for those fortunate enough to escape. By Longstreet’s own estimate, he had ordered 25 separate assaults against Thomas before meeting with success.

The tenacity of the defense of Horseshoe Ridge bought the Army of the Cumberland precious time. It also contributed to Bragg’s unwillingness to believe his forces had won a great victory and might follow it up by smashing into the demoralized Federals at daybreak. Not even the lusty cheers of his soldiers all along the line were enough to convince their commander. Bragg was preoccupied with the staggering loss of 17,804 casualties, 2,389 of them killed, 13,412 wounded and 2,003 missing or taken prisoner. The Union army, after suffering 16,179 casualties, 1,656 dead, 9,749 wounded and 4,774 missing or captured, retired behind Chattanooga’s defenses without further molestation.

History has been less than kind to Bragg, not without cause. True enough, over a quarter of his effective force was lost at Chickamauga. Nevertheless, at no other time in four years of fighting was there a greater opportunity to follow up a stunning battlefield triumph with the pursuit of such a beaten foe. Had Bragg attacked and destroyed Rosecrans on September 21, there would have been little to stop an advance all the way to the Ohio River. Bragg, however, was true to form. As at Perryville and Murfreesboro before, he quickly allowed victory to become hollow.

Rosecrans, on the other hand, had seen one mistaken order wreck his military reputation and almost destroy his army. His nearly flawless campaign of the spring and summer had ended with the Army of the Cumberland holed up in Chattanooga and the enemy tightening the noose by occupying the high ground of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Lincoln lost faith in ‘old Rosey’s’ ability to command, saying he appeared’stunned and confused, like a duck hit on the head.’

Chickamauga, the costliest two-day battle of the entire war, proved a spawning ground of lost Confederate opportunity. While Bragg laid siege to Chattanooga with an army inadequate to do the job, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the hero of Vicksburg, was given overall command in the West and set about changing the state of affairs. Reinforcements poured in from east and west. During the November campaign to raise the siege, the Army of the Cumberland evened the score with the rebels in an epic charge up Missionary Ridge. And when Union soldiers next set foot on the battlefield of Chickamauga, they were on their way to Atlanta.

This article was written by Mike Haskew and originally appeared in America’s Civil War ajakiri. Suuremate artiklite saamiseks tellige kindlasti America’s Civil War ajakiri täna!


156th Anniversary of the Battle of Chickamauga Living History & Youth Programs

Living historian presentations provide a unique opportunity for visitors and volunteers to experience the Battle of Chickamauga. During the weekends of September 14-15 and September 21-22, the park will host several living history organizations conducting programs on the experiences of various groups of soldiers who participated in the Battle of Chickamauga. In addition, during the weekend of September 14-15, the park will host special hands on programs designed for young people.

Living history programs this year will feature mounted soldiers in addition to artillery programs.

Living History Programs

“Bite the Bullet”: Myths & Realities of Civil War Medicine
11 am, 1 pm, and 2:30 pm (Friday, September 13, and Saturday, September 14)
Location: Snodgrass Cabin (Tour Stop 8)

During the Battle of Chickamauga, the Union Army turned George Snodgrass’s farm into a hospital. Join local historian Dr. Anthony Hodges to learn about how surgeons, doctors, and stewards waged their own battle to keep men alive.

Lightning Strikes at Chickamauga: Wilder’s Brigade
10 am, Noon, 2 pm, and 4 pm (Saturday, September 14) & 10 am, Noon, and 2 pm (Sunday, September 15)
Locations: Saturday, September 14 - Wilder Brigade Monument (Tour Stop 6). Sunday, September 15 - along Glenn-Viniard Road. Look for the Special Program signs

Colonel John Wilder’s “Lightning Brigade” were some of the most elite troops to take the field at Chickamauga. Armed with the latest in weapons technology, the deadly Spencer repeating rifle, they commanded the south end of the battlefield throughout the engagement. Programs will feature mounted living historians and Spencer rifle demonstrations.

Artillery Demonstrations
10:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 2:30 pm, 3:30 pm (Saturday September 14, and Sunday, September 15)
Location: Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center

At the Battle of Chickamauga, the technology of the past at times clashed with the technology of the future. While Colonel John Wilder’s men entered the battlefield with modern repeating rifles, many soldiers fought with cannon - technology that had gone largely unchanged for hundreds of years. Learn about the role artillery played at the Battle of Chickamauga with these firing demonstrations.

The Veterans Return to Chickamauga
10:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 2:30 pm, 3:30 pm (Saturday September 21) and
10:30 am, 11:30 am, and 1:30 pm (Sunday, September 22)
Location: Battleline Road near the King Monument

In 1889, veterans from both armies returned to Chickamauga Battlefield for a reunion that ultimately led to the creation of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. This weekend, living historians will stage their own reunion and portray Civil War veterans and their efforts to create the park.

Youth Programs

Hands on History
Ongoing programs throughout the day (Saturday, September 14, and
Sunday, September 15)
Location: Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center

On Saturday September 14, and on Sunday September 15, meet a park ranger for a series of hands-on activities for young people to earn a unique Junior Ranger badge available during the battle anniversary.


Chickamauga

This is the fourth portion of E.B. Quiner’s history of the 15th Wisconsin, which fought in the Federal (Union) Army during the American Civil War (1861-1865). This portion covers the time period of May, 1863, through September, 1863. Information within brackets [ ] has been added to the original text by the webmaster to help modern readers understand what Mr. Quiner rightfully assumed mid-19th century readers would automatically know. Alternative spellings of 15th soldiers’ names have also been added within brackets by the webmaster, using spelling from the 15th’s official muster rolls. Finally, hot links have been added that will take you to on-line transcriptions of official documents and soldiers’ letters, and to profiles of soldiers, which contain additional information about the 15th or its soldiers. Nautige!

Source: Quiner, E. B., The Military History of Wisconsin: Civil and Military Patriotism of the State, in the War for the Union. Chicago, Illinois: Clarke & Company, Publishers, 1866. Chapter XXIII, pages 622-625.
[Change of Command]

“On the 1st of May, the regiment was transferred to the Third Brigade, of which Colonel [Hans C.] Heg had been placed in permanent command, by General Rosecrans. Adjutant Henry Hauff was appointed Assistant Adjutant General, Captain Albert Skofstadt, Inspector, and Lieutenant O. R. [Ole Rasmussen] Dahl, Topographical Engineer.

The death of Lieutenant Colonel [David] McKee created a vacancy, and Major Ole C. Johnson was appointed Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain George Wilson, Major. Colonel Heg being in command of the brigade, the command of the regiment devolved on Lieutenant Colonel Johnson.

The Fifteenth, with Heg’s brigade, accompanied the movement of General Rosecrans’ forces, against General Bragg, at Tullahoma, leaving the neighborhood of Murfreesboro on the 24th of June, Heg’s brigade being detailed as the rear guard of the Twentieth Corps, under General McCook.

We have before described this march of the army, and nothing occurred of much historical importance, in which the Fifteenth was engaged. After driving Bragg out of Tennessee, General Davis’ division went into camp at Winchester, Tenn., on the 3d of July.
[First to Cross the Tennessee River]

On the 17th of August, the onward march was commenced, and the division crossed the Cumberland Mountains, to Stevenson, Ala. [Alabama], where they remained until [August] the 28th, when they led the advance of Rosecrans’ army against the enemy, in the Chickamauga campaign. Proceeding by a circuitous route, the brigade reached the Tennessee River near Caperton’s Ferry, in the neighborhood of Bridgeport, where they constructed a pontoon bridge, and the Fifteenth Wisconsin was the first regiment to cross into the enemy’s country, south of the Tennessee River.

With the rest of McCook’s corps, the division of General Davis proceeded up Wills’ Valley, to Winston’s Gap, from whence it was recalled, when General Rosecrans concentrated his troops prior to the battle of Chickamauga. General McCook’s command joined General [George] Thomas’ forces on the 18th of September, the night proceeding the great battle of Chickamauga.
[Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia]

On the morning of the 19th of September, General Davis’ division was ordered to march at daylight, but it was 8 o’clock before they got in motion. The engagement began on the extreme left, about 10 o’clock, and the cannon firing increased as they advanced. About noon they passed General Rosecrans’ headquarters, at the widow Glenn’s house, and were soon after seat forward at a double quick, and thrown into line of battle, to fill a gap which existed in the lines at that place, and of which the rebels were attempting to take advantage, by throwing in a force, and thus cut the army in twain. Heg’s brigade was formed in two lines, the Thirty-fifth Illinois on the left, the Eighth Kansas in the centre, and the Fifteenth Wisconsin on the right. The Twenty-fifth Illinois was in the second line, as a reserve. Advancing in this manner, the enemy skirmishers were driven in, and a heavy fire was received from his main line. The brigade continued to advance, however, until the Eighth Kansas began to waver and fall back. Being unsupported on the right, and the regiment on the left thus faltering, compelled the Fifteenth also to fall back, which it did, fighting, carrying off most of its wounded. Here Captain [John M.] Johnson, of Company A, was killed. Being reinforced, they regained the lost ground. Colonel Heg was conspicuously active, and labored with the utmost bravery to make up by personal valor, what he lacked in numbers. The forces in this part of the field were, however, compelled to yield to superior numbers, and fell back across an open field. The regiment was stationed in reserve a few moments, when the front line was driven back. The regiment was lying down as the Thirty-fifth Illinois passed over them, intending to form in the rear of the Fifteenth, but did not, and passed through a column of reinforcements, which were just coming up. The reinforcements, supposing the Thirty-fifth to be the last Union regiment in their front, mistook the Fifteenth for a rebel regiment, and opened fire, while the enemy began a heavy fire on the other side. Being thus placed under the galling fire of both friend and foe, the regiment was compelled to break, and each man looked out for himself. The regiment was no more together that day as an organization, but the men attached themselves temporarily to the commands they first encountered, and stayed with them till night. Another advance was made, and the lost ground occupied until near sundown, when Lieutenant Colonel Johnson proceeded to gather his scattered regiment. About this time, Colonel Heg was wounded by a shot in the bowels, which proved fatal next day. Captain [John M.] Johnson, of Company A, and Captain [Henry] Hauff, of Company E, were killed Major [George] Wilson and Captain Captain [Augustus] Gasman were severely wounded, Captain [Hans] Hanson, of Company C, mortally wounded, and Second Lieutenant C. S. Tanberg [Christian E. Tandberg], of Company D, was also wounded.

The remnant of the Fifteenth was aroused at 3 o’clock next morning, and put in a commanding position near the Chattanooga road, to the right and somewhat to the rear of the rest of the army. About 10 o’clock the skirmishers became engaged on the left, and the battle soon raged with great fury on that part of the field. [General] Sheridan’s and [General] Davis’ divisions were soon ordered forward to occupy the extreme right of the line. Davis’ division consisted of the Second Brigade, Colonel Carlin, and the Third, (late Heg’s) now commanded by Colonel Martin, of the Eighth Kansas. Carlin’s brigade occupied the frontline, his left joining General Wood’s right, with the Third Brigade in his rear as support. We have elsewhere related the great blunder at Chickamauga, whereby General Wood’s division was withdrawn, and the divisions of Sheridan and Davis were allowed to be outflanked and slaughtered. A recapitulation here is therefore unnecessary. After General Wood’s departure, Colonel Heg’s brigade was ordered to fill the gap, with about 600 fighting men. The Third Brigade had hardly time to get into line, before the rebels attacked them. Protected by a slight barricade of logs and rails, they were warmly received, and repulsed with great slaughter. A second charge was also bravely repulsed, soon after which, the right and left flanks were turned, Sheridan’s division not having come up on the right of Carlin and a large gap still existed in the position vacated by General Wood. Holding out to the last, in hopes reinforcements would come, the regiment, when almost surrounded, broke, the last to leave their position, and many were captured, among them, Lieutenant Colonel [Ole C.] Johnson. [To read the personal account of the battle by Lieutenant Colonel Johnson, click HERE]

An effort was made to gather the scattered men near the Chattanooga road, but it proved a failure, and the retreat was continued a mile south of the road, where a good position was obtained, and here men were gathered from the division, and from most of the regiments of the corps, who had got separated from their commands. The whole force was consolidated, and the position held until 5 o’clock in the afternoon, when they were ordered three or four miles further to the rear, where they camped for the night. Here the fragments of the regiment were gathered. The day before, their [the 15th’s] aggregate [strength] was 176 [officers and enlisted men], it was now reduced to 75.

The killed and wounded [at Chickamauga], as officially reported, were:

KILLED OR DIED OF WOUNDS — Field Officer — Colonel Hans Heg. Company A — Captain J. M. Johnson, Second Lieutenant Oliver Thompson. Company B — Privates John Johnson and Gunder Olson. Company C — Captain Hans Hanson, Private John Simondson [John Simonsen]. Company D — Private Halvor Halvorson [Halvor Halvorsen]. Company E — Captain Henry Hauff. Company H — Private Knute Bjornson [Knud Bjornson]. Company K — Corporal Ole M. Dorvnass [Ole N. Damness] — 11 [total].

WOUNDED — Field Officer — Major George Wilson, severely. Company A — Sergeant Amand Geterson [Omund Petersen], Privates Christian M. Johnson, Amund Olson and Hubbard Hammock. Company B — Sergeant A. G. Urnaes [Anders J. Urness], Privates Nils Anderson, Osten Knudson, Hans Lageson, Jacob Jacobson and John Inglestad. Company C — Sergeants Christian Hyer [Christian Heyer] and John Lansworth, Corporal James Overson [James Oversen], Privates Peter Anderson (Sr.), Torstun Hendrickson [Torsten Hendricksen], Basmus Jensen [Rasmus Jensen], Hans C. Sorenson [Hans C. Sorensen] and Carl Sobjornson [Carl Torbjornsen]. Company D — Second Lieutenant C. E. Tanberg [Christian E. Tandberg], Sergeant Ole M. Bendixen [Ole M. Bendixon], Privates Thomas Thompson and Anders Amundson. Company E — Privates John H. Stokke [Johannes H. Stokke], Anson Kjellevig [Anund Kjellesvig] and Nils Hanson [Nils Hansen]. Company F — Sergeant Ole B. Johnson [taken prisoner], Privates Ole W. Vigen [Ole K. Vigen] and Torkeld Togerson [Torkild Torgersen]. Company H — Corporal Nels J. Eide, Privates Ole L. Hangnoes [Ole S. Haugness] and Sam. Samson [Sams Sampson]. Company I — Captain August Gasman, at the time, commanding Company D. Company K — Sergeants Ellend Erickson [Lieutenant Ellend Errickson] and Lars A. Larson, Privates Haagen Geterson [Haagen Pederson], Ole Olson [Ole Aslison?], and Ole Johnson [Oemund Johnson]. — 37 [total].

Forty-eight were missing, mostly taken prisoners. [To review a list detailing the names and fate of the 15th’s casualties (killed, wounded, and Missing), click HERE]

All the field officers being disabled, Captain [Mons] Grinager took command of the regiment. [To read the 15th’s official after action report written by Captain Grinager, click HERE] Soon after breakfast, on the 21st, companies G and I, which had been stationed at Island No. 10 since June 11th, 1862, joined the regiment. They numbered eighty men – more than all the other companies put together. [To read the 3rd Brigade official after action report by Colonel Martin, click HERE.]

Rail breastworks were thrown up, but the enemy made no attack, and the brigade was ordered, at 10 P. M., to proceed to Chattanooga, where they arrived about daybreak, and commenced throwing up breastworks. Here the regiment, with the whole army, suffered severely for fuel, provisions and clothing, there being only a single line of communications over the Cumberland Mountains, to Stevenson, 180 miles, which was continually interrupted by the rebel cavalry. Captain [John] Gordon, of Company G, joined the regiment on the 28th of September, and being senior Captain, took command.” [To read the official Chickamauga report of General Davis, the 15th’s Division Commander, click HERE.]

[To read excerpts from letters, diaries, and interviews of 15th soldiers about their experiences during the May through September, 1863, time period, click HERE]


Battle of Chickamauga - History

Map titled “Draft of battle, 19th-20th Sept” drawn by George C. Lusk, with labels added (click image to enlarge). MCHS archival document.

The map above was drawn by George Campbell Lusk. The title, “Draft of battle, 19th-20th Sept,” and the reference to Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps in Rossville indicate it is a map of the Battle of Chickamauga.

The battle took place September 18-20, 1863, in northwestern Georgia. The Union force of 58,000 troops (the Army of the Cumberland, led by Major General William Rosecrans, and Major General Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps) fought 66,000 soldiers of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, led by General Braxton Bragg. Seven of every 25 men on the battlefield were killed or physically wounded. Only the Battle of Gettysburg incurred more casualties than the Battle of Chickamauga during the Civil War.

Chickamauga was one of several battles over the city of Chattanooga. Earlier in the month, Rosecrans had succeeded in forcing Bragg out of the city. Bragg wanted to take it back and destroy Rosecrans’s army. The forces clashed at Chickamauga Creek. After three days the Confederates earned a victory by forcing the Union troops to retreat from the battlefield. But Rosecrans’s army survived and retained control of Chattanooga.

It isn’t known when George Lusk drew this map. He served as Captain of Company K, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. The soldiers of the 10th were part of Major General Granger’s Reserve Corps, but they were stationed at the Union supply base in Bridgeport, Alabama, during the Battle of Chickamauga. Lusk’s map includes Bridgeport, although it is actually about 40 miles downriver from the battleground.

Private Joel Waters of Company K wrote to his brother about Captain Lusk:

“I have got a very good captain he passes me out [i.e. gives me written permission to leave camp] every day if I want to go but I never get tight [i.e. drunk] and always come back when he tells me to. Some of the Captains is hard on their men and punish them for most any little offense.”

(Written December 15, 1861, from Camp Morgan, Mound City, Illinois. From Correspondence of Joel E. Waters, lk. 10-12.)

Lusk was a 37-year-old veteran of the Mexican War, married with two children, when he joined the Union cause. He was born in Edwardsville, Illinois. Lusk fulfilled his three-year term of service in August of 1864 but was unable to resign until October due to the responsibilities of command. (Click here to read a transcription of Lusk’s resignation letter.) He returned to Edwardsville where he and his wife Mary had a third child. Lusk worked as a United States revenue agent and then as a policeman and police magistrate. He died in 1892 and is buried in Lusk Cemetery in Edwardsville.

Ideas for Teachers (or anyone who wants to take a deeper dive into the map)

Some relevant essential questions for students to explore:

  • What events happened during the Civil War and what impact did they have?
  • What impact did military leadership have on the conduct of the war?

Possible classroom activities:

  • Re-draw George Lusk’s map to scale and compare it to Lusk’s version.
  • Compare George Lusk’s map of the Battle of Chickamauga to maps of the battle found in history books and discuss the differences.
  • Read John Waters’s letters from September and October of 1863 (p. 33-37) describing his experiences in Company K before and after the battle and discuss how they provide context for the map.

Sources for this article include United States federal decennial census records and the following additional sources:


Battle of Chickamauga - History

The Chickamauga Campaign

Battle Description A brief, fairly detailed, description of the battle itself, with map of the 2nd day action.
Battle of Chickamauga Another good battle description with a Union slant. Taken from "The Army Of The Cumberland" By Henry M. Cist, Brevet Brigadier-General U. S. V.
The Chickamauga Campaign A very good description of the campaign, with a Southern slant, taken from the Georgia volume of the Confederate Military History.
Chickamauga With Longstreet Chickamauga as seen by James Longstreet as described in his book, "From Manassas to Appomattox."
Gordon on Chickamauga From " Reminiscences Of The Civil War" By John B. Gordon, Maj. Gen., CSA
D.H. Hill at Chickamauga Article taken from Battles and Leaders of The Civil War.
From The Official Records
Union Order of Battle Presents the Organization of the Army of the Cumberland
Confederate Order of Battle Presents the Organization of the Army of Tennessee
Summary of Principal Events This lists the principal events of the campaign from Aug. 16 - Sept. 22, 1863

Official Reports (After Action)


Vaata videot: Lightning Strikes at Chickamauga (Juuli 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Severne

    As is curious. :)

  2. Pendaran

    OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO !! I have long wanted to see this !!!!



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