Ajalugu Podcastid

Ida paleede maalimine

Ida paleede maalimine


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Süro-Palestiina kunst ja arhitektuur

Meie toimetajad vaatavad teie esitatud teabe üle ja otsustavad, kas artiklit muuta.

Süro-Palestiina kunst ja arhitektuur, iidse Süüria ja Palestiina kunst ja arhitektuur.

Vahemerega piirnevatel riikidel Siinai poolsaare ja Nur Dağları (Amanuse mäed) vahel, mille kohta Palestiina ja Süüria nimesid kasutatakse sageli lõdvalt, ei olnud tegelikult geograafilist terviklikkust ega selget ajaloolist määratlust. Süüria sisemus ja selle laienemine väljaspool Eufratit on minevikus alati olnud etnograafiliselt ja mõnikord ka poliitiliselt eraldatud Levanti rannikulinnadest, mille ühendused olid Kiliikia ja Palestiina kaubateedega. Varasematel ajaloolistel aegadel domineerisid nii Süürias kui ka Palestiinas pidevalt üks või teine ​​keiserlik suurriik - egiptlane, mesopotaamia või hetiit. Selline olukord ei soodustanud kuidagi põlisrahvaste kultuuri sidusat arengut, seega on nende riikide individuaalne panus iidse Lähis -Ida kunsti täielikku saavutamisse teisejärguline.

Sellest üldistusest tuleb siiski teha eelajaloo osas erand. Arheoloogiline uurimine Jericho linnas, mis tõi tagasi asustatud kogukondade ajaloo kaugemale kui varasemad Tigrise orus tehtud leiud, avastas väikese, sümmeetriliselt kavandatud religioosse hoone (pärineb umbes 7000 eKr). ametlik arhitektuur. Alles sajand või nii hiljem leiti keskkonnas kummaline inimpeade kogum, mille tunnused olid pädevalt modelleeritud kipsist, mõnikord üle tegeliku kolju luu.

II aastatuhande alguses eKr muutusid Levant ja selle rannikuäärsed linnad Egiptuse sõltuvuseks. Kohalikud valitsejad importisid Egiptuse kunstiteoseid, mis stimuleerisid piirkondlikku käsitööd. Valitsejate hauad - näiteks Byblos - olid sisustatud kullast, elevandiluust, eebenipuust ja obsidiaanist valmistatud viimistletud esemetega. Kohapeal valmistatud esemeid saab hõlpsasti eristada Egiptusest imporditud esemetest nende ornamentide võrdlemisoskuse poolest. Egiptuse motiive kasutati üldiselt dekoratiivse kujunduse elementidena, kuid neid kopeeriti ilma täpsuseta ja nende tähendust arvestamata, mistõttu tulemused olid väga ebaühtlase kvaliteediga. Osaliselt või täielikult tuletatud dekoratiivstiilide esteetilised puudused iseloomustasid Levantini kunsti paljude sajandite jooksul.

Süüria arhitektuuri arengus sel perioodil ilmnevad ilmekamad märgid piirkondlikust individuaalsusest. Seda on ehk kõige paremini näha sisemaal asuvates väiksemates linnades, mis olid vähem Egiptuse mõju all. Kaks paleed Alalakhis (tänapäevane Tell Aƈana, Türgi) Antiookia tasandikul, ehitatud vastavalt 15. ja 13. sajandil eKr, näitavad mõningaid Süüriale iseloomulikke jooni. Puidust sammastega portikused vastuvõtu sviitide sissepääsu juures tähistavad standardse paleeüksuse väljatöötamist, mida tuntakse kui natuke hilani, mille süro-hetiidid võtsid üldiselt vastu paar sajandit hiljem (vaata kunst ja arhitektuur, Anatoolia: hetiidi periood). Basalt-ortostaadid, mis olid veel skulptuurideta, nägid ette Neo-Assüüria paleede omasid ja seinamaalingud, nagu Mari, kaunistasid ülemise loo kambrid Kreeta viisil. Varasemas palees toodeti üks kivipea, mis illustreerib Süüria kaasaegset skulptuuristiili parimal viisil. Ülejäänud näited on toored.

Esimese aastatuhande eKr esimestel sajanditel sai Levanti ranniku ribast Ṭarṭūsist (Süüria) kuni Karmeli mäest lõuna poole kaananlaste rahva kodumaa, mida nimetatakse foiniiklasteks. Arheoloogiliste väljakaevamiste tulemusena on midagi teada nii nende arhitektuurist kui ka Palestiina kaasaegsetest iisraellastest. Nende müüritud linnade ja nende kindlustuste arengu kohta on alates 18. sajandist eKr saadud palju teavet. Näib, et kuningas Saalomoni ajaks, 10. sajandil e.m.a, oli selline sõjaline arhitektuur standardiseeritud, sest kolmes linnas - Hazor, Megiddo ja Gezer - olid seinad ja väravad peaaegu identsed. Seinad on kasemaat -tüüpi (paralleelsed seinad, mille vahel on tühik) sisekambritega ja väravad on keerukad, külgmiste tornide ja lähenemisega läbi mitme põikikambri. 9. sajandil eKr nõudis tõhusama peksupulga leiutamine kasemaatseinte asendamist tugevamate struktuuridega.

Kaanani templite üsna nappe jäänuseid on leitud ka Hazorist ja mujalt. Need koosnesid sisehoovist, peasaalist ja pühapaigast, kõik ühel teljel, aeg -ajalt külgkambritega. Hazori hoones oli tunnuseid, mis vastasid Piibli kirjeldusele "jultunud sammastele" mõlemal pool Saalomoni templi keskmist ukseava, mille ehitasid foiniikia käsitöölised 10. sajandil e.m.a.

Vana -Lähis -Ida kunsti repertuaaris on kõrgel kohal kaks foiniikia ja süüria käsitöövormi: elevandiluust nikerdamine ja kaunistamine ning tseremoniaalsete kausside ja muude pronksist esemete repoussé -ornament. Mõlema kategooria parimaid näiteid võib leida hilis -Assüüria kuningate poolt imporditud või omistatud materjalide hulgast, mida leidub nende paleedes, eriti Nimrūdis. Elevandiluu nikerdamisel on Süürias ja Palestiinas pikk ajalugu, mida näitavad Megiddo tuntud elevandiluud, millest mõned on dateeritud juba 14. sajandil e.m.a. Nende disaini, eriti selle mitte-egiptlasest sisust ja piirkondliku viimistluse algsest panusest on pühendatud nii palju uurimistööle, et mõned teadlased peavad võimalikuks eristada puhtalt Süüria disainilahendusi foiniiklaste töökodadest.


Väljas ja umbes-Art Deco ikoon Ida-Columbia hoone Los Angelese kesklinnas

Kunagi oli Los Angelese kesklinnas asuv Broadway teatripiirkond linna meelelahutuskeskus. Kaksteist teatrit Broadwayl 3. tänava ja Olympic Boulevardi vahel olid miljonite sihtkoht. Tol ajal polnud LA -s midagi muud kui need muljetavaldavad filmipaleed ja teatrid. see tähendab, kuni Sid Grauman ehitas 1922. aastal Egiptuse teatri ja alustas dramaatilist meelelahutust sellest linnaosast Hollywoodi. Tema ülesandeks oli avada 1918. aastal kesklinna Million Dollar Theatre, esimene filmipalee Los Angeleses ja üks esimesi omalaadseid Ameerika Ühendriikides. Teised avanesid umbes samal ajal Broadway ääres-Roxie, Cameo, Arcade, Los Angeles, Palace, State, Globe, Tower, Rialto, Orpheum ja United Artists. Nagu tema nimekaim New Yorgis, elas ka LA Broadway 1920ndatel ja 1930ndatel aastatel lugematu ereda valguse ja värelevate filmimärkidega.

Kaks viimast teatrit, mida mainisin-Orpheum ja United Artists-on mõlemad minu viimase külastuse teema Ida-Columbia hoone naabrid. Istub aadressil 9 ja Broadway just tänaval film noirkuulus Bradbury hoone, idaosa on arhitekt Claud Beelmani töö ja Art Deco meistriteos. See avati 12. septembril 1930, pärast vaid 9 -kuulist ehitamist. raske ette kujutada seda kitsast ajakava, arvestades seda, mis kulub töövõtjatel tänapäeval vaid maja ümberehitamiseks. Ja sellest terasest raudbetoonist ikoonist sai kiiresti üks suuremaid hooneid kogu Ameerika Ühendriikides.

Eelmisel kuul arutasin siin GlamAmoris pärast Art City disaini paljusid märke Art Deco disainist pärast minu visiiti LA linnahalli. Idahoones näib neid kõiki olevat. Esiteks rõhutatakse sümmeetriat ja geomeetriat, mis koos vertikaali täiustavad. Näiteks mitmed veerud kajastavad hoone välisjooni ja kõrgust. Seal on ka Deco tuttavad kujundid, mustrid ja motiivid-päikesepursked, šavronid, siksakid ning stiliseeritud taimed ja loomad. näete neid kõiki hoone fassaadil ja tähelepanuväärsel peasissekäigul. Siis on kellatorni kohal lendavad tugipostid sarnased püramiidiga (teine ​​Deco märk), mis asub raekoja kohal. Isegi kõnniteedel on hoonet ümbritsevas mitmevärvilises terrazzos inkrusteeritud šavronmustrid.

Nimi Ida-Columbia pärineb kahelt ettevõttelt, mis olid selle algsed üürnikud-Eastern Outfitting Company ja Columbia Outfitting Company. vastavalt mööbli- ja rõivakauplustes. Sarnaselt võimsale Bullocks-Wilshire'i kaubamajale, mis asub läänes, veel üks Art Deco ikoon, võin ma vaid ette kujutada ostukogemust sellise kunstiteose sees. Tänapäeval on Ida päästetud hävingust ja kujundatud nutikalt ümber 13 korruse pööningule. Fuajee on kujundanud sisekujundaja Kelly Wearstler, kes kaunistas ka Santa Monica hotelli Viceroy paljudes teistes kohtades üle maailma. Ja nüüd on terrassil otse kella näo all bassein, mis (suurte basseinide armastajana) teeb mind põlvili nõrgaks. Oma visiidi ajal rääkisin ühe selle üürnikuga ja sain kiiresti aru, kui õnnelikuks ta end seal elama peab. Kahjuks ei lastud mind sisse, et seda kõike vahetult tunnistada-range ehituspoliitika keelab selle ja trahvib isegi elanikke, kes väljastpoolt sisse pääsevad.

Kuigi Los Angelese linnas on palju hingematvaid vaatamisväärsusi, on idahoone üks parimaid. Ja vaatamata sellele, et see on üks enim pildistatud hooneid LA-s ja Art Deco maamärk-võrdselt idaranniku nõbu, Empire State Building-on see endiselt üllatavalt alahinnatud. Raske uskuda, kui olete tunnistajaks sellele, et läikiv türkiissinine terrakota paistab päikese käes. Ma hindan seda iga päev. see asub vaid kahe kvartali kaugusel California turukeskuse GlamAmori müügisalongist, tervitades mind igal hommikul uhke akna taga ja showstopperiga, mis öösel helendava neoonmärgiga minuga hüvasti jätab. Paljud peavad seda kõigi Los Angelese ajalooliste hoonete parimaks-Art Deco või muul viisil.

Ja nüüd, kui minu Art Deco kuu (või nii) hakkab lõppema, on mul hea meel tutvustada teile Ida -Columbia hoone uskumatut ikoonilist arhitektuuri.


Claude Perrault, Louvre idafassaad

Ei ole kohe ilmne, miks louvre muuseumi idapoolset fassaadi, mis oli algselt kuningapalee, peeti 17. sajandi lõpu Prantsusmaa tähtsamate arhitektuuriteoste hulka. Tänapäeval valitseb vastuolu hoone suursugususe ja selle ees asuva ruumi - Place du Louvre'i - tavapärasuse ja väiksuse vahel. Algselt palee peamiseks tseremoniaalseks sissepääsuks kavandatud fassaad pöörab hoolimata tänasest kõrgest positsioonist suurt tähelepanu. See on ehe näide prantsuse klassitsismi rangetest disainitraditsioonidest, austatud mudel järgmiseks paleekujunduseks ja monument, mis on seotud arhitektuuri modernsuse algusega.

Louvre läbi sajandite

Louvre, nagu me seda praegu teame, tulenes 800 aasta jooksul toimunud laienemistest. Tuleb meeles pidada, et kuigi Louvre asub praegu Pariisi kesklinnas, oli see kuni XVIII sajandini linna lääneservas.

Herman, Paul ja Jean de Limbourg, oktoober (detail koos Louvre'iga), alates Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413-16, tint vellumil (Musée Condé, Chantilly)

Alates 1190. aastast ehitas kuningas Philippe II Seine'i jõe paremale kaldale kindlustatud arsenali. Neljateistkümnendal sajandil muutis Charles V selle kuninglikuks residentsiks. Oktoobri illustratsioon kuulsalt Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, Limbouri vendade (ülal) kaunilt kaunistatud tundide raamat (igapäevaste palvete kogumik ilmikute eest) soovitab, milline nägi välja kindluspalee vahetult pärast Karli sekkumist.

Claude Perrault, perspektiivne linnuvaade Cour Carrée'le (Louvre), idast, 1663

Kuueteistkümnenda sajandi alguses plaanisid Francis I arhitektid palee laiendada avaramaks renessansshooneks. Tema järglased, eriti kuningad Henri IV, Louis XIII ja Louis XIV, jätkasid üha uhkemate plaanide tegemist - muutsid palee jõe ääres laialivalguvaks struktuuriks. Louis XIII algatas seitsmeteistkümnendal sajandil Cour Carrée (ruudukujuline sisehoov) tuntud idapiirkonna ehitamise - see on sümboolne žest, mis ulatub linna perifeeriast (ülal). Selle fassaadid pidid viitama kuninga ühendamisele tema pealinnaga. Seitsmeteistkümnenda sajandi keskpaigaks ei jäänud keskaegsest linnusest ega viieteistkümnenda sajandi paleest maapinnast midagi alles. Lõpuks, 1660 -ndatel aastatel kujutati idatiib ümber kui suurejooneline kuninglik sissepääs kogu konstruktsiooni.

Kuid 1680. aastaks juhtis Louis XIV kogu oma tähelepanu - ja tõi kogu oma õukonna - uude Versailles ’paleesse. Töö Louvre'is lakkas ja mahajäetud Cour Carrée vajus katuseta umbes sajandi. Iroonilisel kombel sai selle patrooni ja arhitektide kavatsus üheks Pariisi silmapaistvamaks kuningliku võimu sümboliks linna üle hoopis kuninga puudumise märgiks.

Colbert, Le Vau ja Bernini

Aastal 1664 läks Cour Carrée valmimine uute ida- ja lõunatiibadega Louis XIV rahandusministri, hoonete superintendendi ja kuningliku kultuuri eestkoste juhi Jean-Baptiste Colberti ülesandeks. Kuningad Peaminister (Peaarhitekt) Louis Le Vau oli lõunatiiva valmis saanud juba aastal 1663. Osana oma plaanist Cour Carrée viimistlus lõpetada, alustas ta ka idatiiva ehitamist, mille kujundus sisaldas kolossaalset tellimust (pikem kui üks lugu) pikisuunalised veerud ja keskpaviljon (lõik, mis ulatub edasi). Sellel oli sarnasusi Le Vau Collège des Quatre Nations'iga (allpool), mis ehitati samal ajal otse üle jõe Cour Carrée lõunatiibast.

Louis Le Vau, Collège des Quatre Nations, 1662-70 (foto: Tale of a Wanderer, CC BY-NC 2.0)

Pealtnäha poliitilistel põhjustel peatas Colbert kogu töö Le Vau Louvre'i kujunduste kallal, kui ta asus 1. jaanuaril 1664. aastal ehitusinspektoriks. Le Vau oli hiljuti kujundanud Nicolas Fouquet'le suurejoonelise lossi Vaux-le-Vicomte (rahandus) minister enne Colbertit). Aastal 1661 lasi Louis XIV Fouquet'i eluaegse vangistuse eest liialdatud süüdistuste tõttu riigikassas valesti käsitseda. Colbert lõpetas Le Vau Louvre'i töö, soovides võib -olla tugevdada kuninga väidet absoluutse võimu kohta ja kinnitada oma ainuõigust kunsti küsimustes otsustada. Seejärel küsis Colbert teiste Prantsuse arhitektide kavandeid ja märtsis kutsus ta ettepaneku Gianlorenzo Berninilt, kes oli tol ajal hõlpsasti kuulsaim kunstnik Euroopas. Bernini oli itaallane ja töötas peamiselt Roomas paavstide patroonide heaks.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Louvre, idafassaad (esimese projekti uuring), pruun tint laotud paberile, 16,3 x 27,8 cm (The Courtauld Gallery, London)

Bernini esimesed Louvre idafassaadi kujundused (ülal) olid märkimisväärselt erksad, neid väljendasid kolossaalsed kaasatud veerud (“engaged ” tähendab siin seina külge kinnitatud). Tema seinu elavdasid valguse ja varju kontrastid, tahked ja tühjad, kõverad ja sirged jooned. Colbert ei kiitnud neid disainilahendusi heaks, kuna need on liiga kaugel prantsuse traditsioonidest, kuid kavatsedes lasta kunstnikel ehitada nii lugupeetud kunstnikud (ja ignoreerida solvavaid prantsuse arhitekte, kes tunneksid end välismaalase pärast nuhkimisena), kutsus ta Bernini Pariisi proovima veelkord. Bernini viibis Pariisis juunist oktoobrini 1665. Tema toodetud projekt (allpool) oli massiivne plokk, mis oli üles tõstetud tugevalt roostetanud alusele ja mille liigendas taas kolossaalne kaasatud veergude ja pilastrite järjekord (pilastrid on lamedad haaratud veerud). Kuigi selle ots ja keskpaviljonid olid noogutus Prantsuse paleede traditsioonilisele vormile, tundus see Roomas rohkem kodus kui Pariisis. Ehitus algas vahetult enne Bernini lahkumist Pariisist, kuid Colbert peatas ka selle töö peagi.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1665. aasta Louvre idafassaadi kolmas ja viimane kujundus, joonistanud Mattia De Rossi

The petite conseil ja lõplik kujundus

Idatiiva tööga edasi liikumiseks määras Colbert a petite conseil (väike nõukogu) 1667. aasta alguses, mis koosnes algselt kolmest liikmest: Louis Le Vau (endiselt Peaminister vaatamata tema Fouquet -ühendusele), Peaminister (Kuninga peamaalija) Charles Le Brun ja arstist teadlane ja arhitekt Claude Perrault. Claude oli muinasjuttude poolest tuntud kirjaniku Charles Perrault'i vend, silmapaistev liige Académie française (Prantsuse Akadeemia) ja Colberti lähedane kaaslane. Charles ilmselt mõjutas Colbertit andma oma vennale Claude'ile koha petite conseil. Tema kasuks võiks Charles viidata oma venna hiljutistele püüdlustele arhitektuuris, mis hõlmas Colberti enda 1666. aasta tellimust tõlkida prantsuse keelde Vana -Rooma arhitekti Vitruviuse traktaat.

1667. aasta maiks oli nõukogu välja töötanud uue kujunduse. Kolme liikmega liitus neljas, arhitekt Roland Fréart de Chambray aastal 1668, ta näib olevat aidanud kaasa paviljonide lõplikule kujundamisele. Komitee struktuuri tõttu on arutelu idatiiva autorsuse üle jätkunud algusest kuni tänapäevani. Kahtlemata aitasid disainile kaasa kõik neli nõukogu liiget - igaüks jõuline isiksus. Le Vau ja Perrault'i panuse suhteline tähtsus on aga jäänud vaidlusaluseks.

Tahvel 7. Louvre Pariisis: Saint-Germain l ’Auxerroise peamise fassaadi kõrgus Jacques-François Blondelist, Frantsiisi arhitektuur, Tome 4, Livre 6, 1756

Nõukogu disain on ühtsuse uuring. Pikk fassaad järgib Prantsuse paleede viieosalist mustrit: kaks paviljoni, üks kummaski otsas, süvistatud tiibadega ja keskse sissepääsuga, mille peal on fronton. Kuid paviljonid ulatuvad tiibadelt vaid veidi edasi ja nad ei tõuse neist kõrgemale, nagu see oli traditsiooniline. Vaid keskpaviljoni frontoni madal kolmnurkne kuju rikub katusejoone ranget horisontaalsust, mida rõhutab ja pehmendab balustraad (pidev reeling), mis oli Le Vau lemmikmotiiv. Otsapaviljonid, mis on elegantse detailiga ja madala reljeefiga skulptuuriga, meenutavad Rooma triumfikaari. Tugeva alusena kujundatud alumine lugu kasutab Louvre'i varasemate akendega sarnaseid aknaid, luues vanemate sektsioonidega visuaalse järjepidevuse ja pakkudes ülaltoodud sammastele visuaalselt tugevat tuge.

Klassikalised tellimused

Koos fassaadi horisontaalsusega tähistavad kaksikportikode kahekordsed veerud (kaetud kõnniteed või verandad, siin piki sammaskäike või süvistatud tiivad) Prantsusmaa varasematest kuninglikest hoonetest lahkumist. Korintose veerud annavad kogu fassaadile pideva ja ühtlase rütmi. Sügavate portikode ette seatud veergude valgus ja vari loovad visuaalse rikastuse. Ja veergude kasutamisel on erinevusi: keskpaviljonis ja sammaskäikudes on need vabalt seisvad, kuid lõpppaviljonides muutuvad nad keskakende ümber haakuvateks sammasteks ja välisservades pilastriteks. Nende pisut saledam osakaal võrreldes enamiku Korintose veergudega kompenseerib laiemat osa, mida tajub seotud motiivis.

Claude Perrault, Louvre idafassaad, Pariis (foto: BikerNormand, CC BY-SA 2.0)

Plaan (vaade ülalt), mis näitab süvistatud portikat (avatud kõnnitee või veranda paaris veergude taga)

Tol ajal olid paaristatud veerud disaini kõige jahmatavam aspekt. Veergude vahekauguse küsimus (nn interkolumniation) oli see, millele Vitruvius ja renessansi arhitektuurikirjanikud olid palju aega kulutanud. Väike diagramm, mis avaldati Claude Perrault ’tõlkes Vitruviusest, Les dix livres d’architecture de Vitruve, selgitab, kuidas kolonnaadid kujundati. Perrault näitab nelja veeru seeriat, mis on paigutatud ühtlaselt järjestikku. See on näiteks iidse templi tüüpiline vahekolonteerimine. Louvre'i kolonnaadi kujunduse saavutamiseks näitab Perrault, kuidas iga teine ​​veerg liigub vasakule naabri poole.

Diagramm põhineb originaalil Claude Perrault'is, Les dix livres d’architecture de Vitruve, Paris: Coignard, 1673. Joonistas Paul A. Ranogajec

Kaheveerulise mustri loomiseks nihutades pooled veerud välja, pööratakse suuremat rõhku veergude vahelistele tühikutele: see tähendab suurt ruumi iga veerupaari vahel (B) ja kitsast ruumi iga paari veergude vahel ( A). See loob staatilisema A-A asemel dünaamilise visuaalse rütmi A-B-A.

Perrault'i sõnul on see paigutus tavapärasest laiem (eemaldamine), on seaduslik leiutis kuuendat tüüpi klassikalisest liigendamisest. Vana -Rooma arhitektuuriasutus Vitruvius oli arutanud viit ideaalset veergude vahekaugust, Perrault väitis, et Louvre oli uus tüüp, mis sobib kaasaegsele prantsuse maitsele. Ta väitis, et kuigi iidsed inimesed eelistasid tihedalt asetsevaid veerge - osaliselt kivist ehitamise struktuuriliste piirangute tõttu - prantslased, kelle traditsioon on kergem ja avatum struktuur, mis tuleneb hiliskeskaja gooti katedraalidest, eelistavad laiemaid vahemaid. Perrault aga ei aruta kunagi asjaolu, et fassaad kasutab suures koguses rauast tugevdust, ilma milleta kalduvad konstruktsioonijõud sambaid väljapoole suruma.

Perrault ’iluteooria ning muistsete ja kaasaegsete tüli

kuigi tagajärjed fassaadi kollektiivne autorlus on nüüdseks kindlaks tehtud, Perrault'i hilisemat arhitektuuriteooriat on juba ammu loetud disaini selgituseks ja selle loomupärase kaasaegsuse kinnituseks. Perrault põhiline väljakutse traditsioonilistele arhitektuurilistele ideedele oli väide, et ilu ei ole loomulik ega universaalne omadus, see ei sõltu täpsetest, muutumatutest proportsiooniseadustest ega matemaatilisest harmooniast. Perrault väitis, et ilu oli tingimuslik, põhinedes kujutlusvõimel ja tavapärasel kasutamisel. Et ületada arhitektuurilise ilu suhtes täiesti subjektiivse hinnangu andmise võimalust, tuli arhitekti lähenemist valitseda. Arhitektid pidid disaini käigus ise ilu avastama.

Perrault’i enda katse rakendada kaasaegset lähenemist ilule on leitud tema arhitektuuritöödest, Ordonnance des cinq espèces de colonnes selon la méthode des Anciens. Ta esitab arhitektuurile kahte tüüpi ilu: positiivne ja meelevaldne. Positiivne ilu on,

veenvatel põhjustel… kelle kohalolek töödes meeldib kindlasti kõigile, on nende väärtus ja kvaliteet kergesti mõistetavad. Need hõlmavad materjalide rikkust, hoone suurust ja suurejoonelisust, teostuse täpsust ja puhtust ning sümmeetriat… [mis] koosneb osade ühisest suhtest… ” Seevastu meelevaldse ilu „määrab meie soov anda kindel osa, kuju või vorm asjadele, millel võib olla teistsugune vorm ilma väärastumata ja mis näivad meeldivat mitte igaühe haaratavatel põhjustel, vaid pelgalt kombe järgi….

Proportsioon oli teine ​​valdkond, kus Perrault pakkus arhitektuuriteooriale midagi uut. Kuni tema ajani olid arhitektuurialased kirjanikud tavaliselt määranud proportsioonile ilu tajumisel määrava rolli. Seevastu Perrault kirjutab lehe esimesel lehel Ordonnance et „hoone, nagu ka inimkeha, ilu peitub vähem muutumatu osakaalu täpsuses ja koostisosade suhtelises suuruses kui selle kuju armus”. Sellegipoolest tunnistas Perrault, et nii olemasolevatest antiigi mälestusmärkidest kui ka Vitruviuse ja kuulsate renessansi arhitektuurikirjanike välja töötatud proportsionaalskeemidest on võimalik välja võtta teatud vahemikke vastuvõetavaid proportsioone. Ta tunnistab, et eksisteerivad „üksikasjalikud reeglid, millest ei saa kõrvale kalduda, ilma et rööviksime hoonelt selle armu ja elegantsi”, kuid kinnitab kiiresti, et on veel „piisavalt ruumi, et arhitektidel oleks vabadus erinevate elementide mõõtmeid suurendada või vähendada”. vastavalt nõuetele, mis tulenevad erinevatest asjaoludest. ” Ta kritiseerib varasemate kirjanike proportsioonisüsteeme ja pakub seejärel enda oma: keskmine, mis on võetud ajaloost lugupeetud hoonete äärmustest. Kuigi ta jätab ruumi leiutamisele, on ta siiski ettevaatlik, et õigustada oma proportsionaalset süsteemi mineviku näidete põhjal.

Sébastien Leclerc, Louvre'i frontonikivide tõstmine paika 1674, 1677, graveering

Detail paaritatud veergudega, tahvel 7. Pariisi Louvre: Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois'le suunatud peafassaadi tõus (detail) Jacques-François Blondelist, Frantsiisi arhitektuur, Tome 4, Livre 6, 1756

Aastal Ordonnance Perrault eristab traditsionaliste, kellel on „liialdatud austus antiikaja vastu” ja kes „usuvad siiralt, et nende armastatud antiikaja hiilgus põhineb sellel, et seda peetakse eksimatuks, jäljendamatuks ja võrreldamatuks”. See asetas ta kaasaegsesse laagrisse eliitkultuuridebatis, mis sai tuntuks kui Muinasaja ja kaasaegse tüli. See arutelu keskendus küsimustele kirjandus- ja kunstisaavutuste suhtelise väärtuse kohta tänapäeval (eriti Louis XIV, aga ka tema vahetute eelkäijate ajal) ja antiikajast. The Moderns eesotsas Claude Perrault ’venna Charlesiga, kelle seeriaraamat Muinasaja ja kaasaegse paralleel oli arutelu proovikiviks, uskus tänapäeva üha suuremasse täiuslikkusesse ja ülimuslikkusesse. Muistsed aga leidsid, et teatud asjad antiikajast olid nii erakordsed ja võrreldamatud, et neid ei saanud tänapäeval mitte miski ületada. Tänu oma uuenduslikele ideedele ilu, proportsiooni ja leiutiste kohta on Claude Perrault alati nimetatud kaasaegse aja pooldajaks. Ja Louvre'i fassaad on alati olnud seotud tema teooriaga, muutes hoone kaasaegse arhitektuuri varaseks monumendiks.

Kuid Perrault, nagu oleme näinud, tugines ka antiikaja autoriteedile ja ta võttis arhitektuurilise disaini põhielementidena vastu klassikalised tellimused. Pigem innovaatorina kui radikaalina rõhutas ta suuri pingutusi, rõhutades, et ta ei ole traditsioonidega niivõrd vastuolus, kuivõrd laiendab, isegi täiustab seda. Ta kirjutas,

Samuti väidan, et olenemata sellest, milliseid uuendusi ma kasutan, ei ole see mitte niivõrd iidse parandamine, kuivõrd selle esialgse täiuslikkuse taastamine. Ma teen seda mitte omal volitusel, järgides ainult oma arusaama, vaid alati viidates mõnele muistsete teoste või mainekate kirjanike näitele. … Ma ei paku midagi, millel pole eelnevaid näiteid ega kuulsate autorite töid. … Ma ütleksin, et minu eesmärk on lihtsalt laiendada muutusi veidi kaugemale kui varem.

Meistritöö, mis on peidetud silmapiirile

Louvre idafassaad on endiselt üks muljetavaldavamaid prantsuse klassikalise disaini näiteid. Ükskõik, kas me näeme seda tulevikku viitavat või traditsioonidele tuginevat, on see proovikivi aruteludes klassitsismi üle kaasaegses arhitektuuris. Arhitektid uurisid selle ehitamisest saadik, et sellest sai pretsedent, eeskuju, mis eritas hilisematel aegadel silmapaistvaid hooneid, sealhulgas Charles Garnieri tuntud Pariisi ooperiteater 19. sajandil, mis võttis vastu ühendatud veergude motiivi. Asjaolu, et tänapäeval on Louvre'i fassaad tegelikult muuseumi tagakülg, võib vähendada selle esiletõstmist, kuid ei saa selle tähtsust kustutada.

Lisaressursid:

Robert W. Berger, Päikese palee: Louis XIV Louvre (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press), 1993.

Harry Francis Mallgrave, Kaasaegne arhitektuuriteooria: ajalooline ülevaade, 1673-1968 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 1. – 9.

Claude Perrault, Käsk viie tüüpi veergude järgi muistsete meetodil, tõlkinud Indra Kagis McEwen, sissejuhatus Alberto Perez-Gomez, Santa Monica (The Getty Center, 1993).


Kääbusmaali loomine

Manohar, Mughali väed jälitavad Da ’ud armeed, umbes 1596 – 1600, 43,2 x 27,9 cm, Freer & amp; Sackleri galeriid.

Maalide teemad olid tavaliselt (kuigi mitte alati) ilmalikud ja hõlmasid laias valikus teemasid, mis hõlmasid kohtustseene, lahingustseene, jahistseene ja portreesid. Illustratsioone kaunistasid rikkalikud piirid ja laitmatu kalligraafia. Teosed on, nagu nimigi ütleb, üsna väikesed, kuid on täis uskumatult üksikasjalikku taset. Mõned neist keerulistest detailidest saadi ühe juuksekarvaga harjade abil!

Miniatuurid olid kas raamatuillustratsioonide või albumitesse salvestatud üksikute teoste kujul ja olid sisuliselt keeruka koostöö tulemus. Isegi kui maali omistatakse konkreetsele kunstnikule, on tavaliselt kunsti loomisel olnud palju rohkem inimesi erinevate ülesannete jaoks, näiteks värvi tegemine, paberi kruntimine, kalligraafia, visandamine ja värvimine. Nende uskumatult keeruliste teoste loomiseks kulus palju hoolikat tööd.


Rikkus kunstis

Mõju on näha paljudes Euroopa kunstides kogu 15. sajandi vältel. Tüüpiline näide on altarimaal Madonna ja laps, maalitud Itaalia kunstniku Andrea Mantegna poolt 15. sajandi keskel. See on tüüpiliselt renessansskujutis, kuid lähemal vaatlusel selgub, et see koosneb ülimalt kallitest materjalidest ja kujutab endast rikkalikku hulga väärtuslikke esemeid, millest enamik on pärit idast.

Mantegna Madonna ja laps San Zone'i altarimaalist, La basilica di San Zeno, Verona © Madonna on riietatud rikkaliku idapoolse siidi ja sametiga ning seisab kalli Türgi vaiba peal. Sambad on valmistatud Egiptuse porfüürist. Lapsed lugesid Mamluki (Egiptuse) köitega raamatutest. Madonna pea ümber on bänd, mida tuntakse kui tirazi, araabiakeelset kirja Koraanist. Isegi Mantegna kasutatud pigmendid pärinesid kohalikust toorainest Itaalia idaosas asuvatesse piirkondadesse. Selle tüüpiliselt renessansiaegse kuvandi rikkus ja rikkalik rikkalikkus tekkis otseselt kaubandustööde tulemusena välisturgudega, millest enamik oli mandri -Euroopa ida pool.

. tolle aja ehitajad ja arhitektid vaatasid Bütsantsis asuva võimsa idakristliku kiriku poole oma arhitektuurilise suursugususe ja kunstilise sära eeskuju.

Suur osa selle rikkaliku kunsti väljapaneku tõukest tuli rahvusvahelise kaubanduse kasvust, kuid see oli ka tolle aja kasvavate usuliste ja poliitiliste pingete tulemus. Even in the 15th century, the Roman Catholic Church was in disarray, recovering from bitter in-fighting and factional schisms. Rome's classical architecture lay in ruins, and the builders and architects of the time looked towards the powerful eastern Christian Church based in Byzantium for their model of architectural grandeur and artistic brilliance.

Pope Nicholas V (reigned 1447-55) was an astute politician who ruthlessly suppressed dissenting voices to his rule. He embarked on an ambitious programme of building to celebrate the renewed sense of confidence that his strong papacy had brought to the Church, and this ultimately led to the great frescoes, statues, paintings and architectural achievements of Bramante, Michelangelo and Raphael in the 16th century.


Ajalugu | The Uffizi

Commissioned by Cosimo I de&rsquo Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, the building, was conceived to house the &ldquoUffizi&rdquo, the administrative and legal offices of Florence. The work was entrusted to artist Giorgio Vasari, who designed an edifice with a Doric column portico, in a style that was both elegant and severe, established &ldquoupon the river and almost in the air&rdquo.

Started in 1560 as the Magistrates&rsquo building that gave the complex its original name of Magistrature, the construction involved the demolition and rebuilding of the Rione di Baldracca, the quarter where a notorious tavern of the same name was located.

The old Romanesque church of San Pier Scheraggio, where formerly the municipal Council used to meet before Palazzo della Signoria was built, was spared. It was incorporated into Vasari&rsquos project, and used as a place of worship until the 18th century.

Vasari brilliantly solved the problems of limited space, using solutions of bold, dramatic effect. A Serlian window overlooking the Arno, an architectural feature consisting of a large central arch with two adjacent openings, framed the porticoed square, the new economic and political forum, and the traditional civic space par excellence, Piazza della Signoria.

The 13 offices of the Magistrates in charge of overseeing Florentine production and trade were transferred to the ground floor of the building, while the first floor housed the administrative offices and workshops of the Grand Duchy, which were dedicated to the manufacture of precious objects. Originally, the building was topped by an open loggia.

Cosimo I requested the addition of an elevated passage, which is still used today, between the new building and Palazzo Vecchio. In March 1565, on the occasion of the marriage between Francesco I and Joanna of Austria, another elevated passageway was built between the Uffizi and Pitti Palace, known as the Vasari Corridor. This &ldquoaerial route&rdquo was reserved to the court for three centuries and opened to the public in 1865.

On Vasari&rsquos death (1574), works continued under the direction of Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti, who completed the building, connecting it to the Loggia dei Lanzi in 1580.

Francesco I, Grand Duke from 1574 to 1587, was responsible for creating the first museum arrangement in the Gallery on the second floor of the building. The eastern wing of the loggia contained a series of ancient statues and busts, while along the corridor was the Tribuna, an octagonal room designed by Buontalenti, where the treasures of the Medici&rsquos collections were displayed.

The Gallery&rsquos ceilings were decorated with &ldquogrotesque&rdquo motifs, following a style made popular by Raphael and his pupils, which drew inspiration from the wall paintings in the Domus Aurea, the home of Emperor Nero, which had been discovered in that period.

Moreover, Francesco commissioned Buontalenti to build the Medicean Theatre &ndash inaugurated in 1588 &ndash in the eastern wing of the building. Today, all that remains of this structure is the Vestibule on the first floor. The Theatre was the home of the Senate during the period in which Florence was the capital of the Kingdom of Italy (1865-1871), and then it was divided into two to create exhibition spaces in 1889.

Ferdinando I, brother of Francesco and his successor in 1587, had the Giovio Collection, a series of portraits of illustrious figures, moved to the Gallery from its previous home in Palazzo Vecchio, where originally Cosimo I decided to place it. The portraits executed by Cristofano dell&rsquoAltissimo were copies of an original collection belonging to humanist Paolo Giovio, and kept in a villa on Lake Como. The Giovio Series of illustrious men is alternated with works from the Aulic Series, a collection of portraits of the main members of the Medici family, started by Francesco I de' Medici. The paintings from the Giovio and Aulic series occupy the three corridors of the Gallery to form one of the largest and most complete collections of portraits in the world.

Ferdinando commissioned also the creation of new rooms in the Gallery: the &ldquoStanzino delle Matematiche&rdquo [Room of Mathematics] was set out in a small room adjacent to the Tribune, while the maps painted by Ludovico Buti after drawings by cartographer Stefano Bonsignori were arranged on a Terrace. The rooms after the Tribune, which were decorated by Buti in 1588, were used to display the Armoury, a selection of fine weapons and armours previously kept in the private Wardrobe of the Grand Duke.

In the period of Ferdinando II, between 1658 and 1679, frescoes were painted on the ceilings of the western corridor. Between 1696 and 1699, Grand Duke Cosimo III ordered the corridor which overlooks the River Arno to be decorated with religious frescoes. The rooms at the beginning of the eastern wing were home to the &ldquoFonderia&rdquo, both the Grand Duchy&rsquos apothecary and cabinet of natural curiosities. Cosimo III was also responsible for moving some of the most famous examples of ancient statues to Florence from the Villa Medici in Rome: the Medici Venus, the Wrestlers and the Scythian were all placed in the Tribune by Buontalenti.

In 1737, the death of Grand Duke Gian Gastone without heirs marked the end of the Medici dynasty. The assembly of other European powers, with the preliminary agreements of Wien in 1735, decided to grant the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of the heir to the imperial throne, Maria Teresa Habsburg. Thanks to the Family Pact of 1737, Anna Maria, sister of Gian Gastone, left the Medici&rsquos art collections to the city of Florence, decreeing that they could never be moved from there.

Francesco&rsquos successor, Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, opened the Gallery to the public in 1769 and commissioned Zanobi del Rosso to set out the new entrance to the Museum Mediceum. This was followed by a rational, education-based rearrangement of the collections in the Gallery by Giuseppe Pelli Bencivenni and Luigi Lanzi. In 1779, the Neoclassical Niobe Room was designed by Gaspare Maria Paoletti to house the ancient group of statues depicting Niobe and her children, taken from the Villa Medici in Rome. Between 1842 and 1856, Leopold II commissioned 28 statues for the niches of the colonnade in the square, which depicted illustrious Tuscan figures from the Middle Ages to the 19th century. At the time of the Kingdom of Italy, the Renaissance statues were transferred to the new national Museum of Bargello, the Gallery gradually became used to display paintings. In 1956 the first rooms of the Gallery were rearranged by architects Giovanni Michelucci, Carlo Scarpa and Ignazio Gardella. On 17 December 2011, the new western stairway, designed by Adolfo Natalini, was inaugurated to connect the historic second floor of the Gallery to the new rooms on the first floor.


The Royal Collection

Find out about our work conserving the Royal Collection, ensuring that objects are maintained to the highest possible standards.

A hidden musical surprise

Cleaning this inkstand uncovered a surprising element in need of repair

Exhibition Highlights

Star Collection items, featuring in current exhibitions.

The Padshahnama opening sunburst

Treasures from the Royal Library's collection of Indian Manuscripts

Cardplayers in a sunlit room

One of a series of masterpieces from Buckingham Palace

Queen Mary's Dolls' House

Marvel at the craftsmanship and detail

Tam O'Shanter chair

Learn more about this commemoration of Robert Burns

About the Royal Collection

The Royal Collection is one of the largest and most important collections in the world and one of the last great European royal collections to remain intact.

Collectors

Learn more about the sovereigns and consorts who have influenced the shape and diversity of the Collection.

Keep in touch

Sign up to e-mail updates for the latest news, exclusive events and 15% off in our online shop.

We will look after your data in accordance with our Privacy Notice.

Quick Links
Official Royal Residences

The income from your ticket contributes directly to The Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity. The aims of The Royal Collection Trust are the care and conservation of the Royal Collection, and the promotion of access and enjoyment through exhibitions, publications, loans and educational activities.


India Packages

Compare quotes from upto 3 travel agents for free

7. Hawa Mahal, Jaipur

The Hawa Mahal stands at the intersection of the main road in Jaipur, Badi Chaupad. It is regarded as the signature building of Jaipur and was built by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh. Considered as one of the most important and culturally rich historical monuments in India, Hawa Mahal stands testimony to the rich Rajputana architecture.

8. Victoria Terminus, Mumbai

Also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Victoria Terminus is a modern railway station in Mumbai. Constructed in the Victorian-Gothic style of architecture, the railway station is a declared as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. The station is one of the most famous historic landmark symbolizing the pre-independence British Raj in India.

9. Victoria Memorial, Kolkata

The Victoria Memorial is a large marble building, which is considered to be the pride of Kolkata. Built between 1906 and 1921, it is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria. Presently it is a museum and a popular tourist spot under the Ministry of Culture.

10. Qutub Minar, Delhi

The soaring and brave tower that allures tourists despite being destroyed by ravages of natural apocalypses several times, Qutub Minar is the tallest individual tower in the world and second tallest monument of Delhi. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is located in Mehrauli and its construction was started in 1192 by Qutb Ud-Din-Aibak, founder of Delhi Sultanate. Later, the tower was built by various rulers over the centuries. The sight of this glorious monument takes you back to the rich history of India.

11. Sanchi Stupa, Madhya Pradesh

Built in the 3rd century, the world renowned Sanchi Stupa is a remnant of Sanchi's glorious past. Also a World Heritage Site and one of the topmost historical monuments of india, this stupa speaks volumes of Sanchi's rich cultural and architectural grandeur and the rich legacy of buddhist aesthetics.

12. Gateway of India, Mumbai

One of the most distinguished monuments of India, The Gateway of India was built in 1924. Now it has become a popular tourist hub in the city. Located at Apollo Bunder Waterfront, the monument overlooks the Arabian Sea in the most beautiful way.

13. India Gate, Delhi

The All India War Memorial, popularly known as the India Gate, is a war memorial located in New Delhi. It is dedicated to the 82,000 soldiers, both Indian and British, who died during the First World War and the Third Anglo-Afghan War. The Amar Jawan Jyoti is the burning structure, right underneath the archway, which symbolizes the eternal, immortal soldiers of India.

14. Agra Fort, Agra

Also known as Lal Qila, Fort Rouge or Red Fort of Agra, the Agra Fort is a UNESCO world heritage site. It is situated at a distance of about 2.5 km north-west of the famous Taj Mahal. The construction of the massive fort of red sandstone by the banks of Yamuna river was started by emperor Akbar.

15. Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh - The Architectural Masterpiece

Known For : Light and Sound Show, Khajuraho Dulhadev Temple Kandariya Mahadev Temple

Khajuraho is known around the world for its stunning temples adorned by erotic and sensuous carvings. Known to be one of the most important places in Indian history, the place is visited by tourists, travellers, scientists and wanderers alike.

Best Time: July to March

16. Charminar, Hyderabad

Charminar is the most important landmarks in the city of Hyderabad. The monument was erected when Quli Qutb Shah shifted his capital from Golconda to Hyderabad. The monument got its name from its structure as it consists of four minarets. The monument looks amazing during the night when it is illuminated.

17. Red Fort, New Delhi

The Red Fort was the official seat of Mughal rule and authority from 1648 onwards, when the 5th Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, decided to move the capital of the empire from Agra to Delhi. Constructed using red sandstone, it remains one of the architectural marvels of the Mughal era. It is one of the monuments in India which has been granted the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was awarded this distinction in 2007.

18. City Palace, Udaipur

One of the best architectural marvels in the state of Rajasthan, the City Palace in Udaipur is located on the banks of Lake Pichola. One of the most picturesque monuments in India, the palace looks straight out of a fairy tale. The grand white City Palace is a heritage building, and it showcases the best elements of Rajput Culture and arts.

19. Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh

A city, predominantly made of red sandstone, Fatehpur Sikri was once the capital of Mughal Emperor Akbar. It is now a UNESCO world heritage site and a famous tourist attraction. The city offers a fine example of Akbar's architectural finesse.

20. Amber Fort, Jaipur

Amber Fort, situated 11 kms from Jaipur, is a fort built with great artistic taste. Cradled on the top of a hill forming a beautiful reflection in Maotha Lake, it is popularly known as Amer Fort and is counted as one of the most important historical monuments of India.

21. Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara

The term Maharaja Palace actually refers to a series of palaces in Vadodara, Gujarat, India, constructed since the Gaekwad a prominent Maratha family started ruling the Baroda State. The first one was a building known as the Sarkar Wada. This building, not really a palace, was given up for the Nazarbaug Palace built in old classical style. (br) After this the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, an extravagant building of the Indo-Saracenic school, was built by Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III in the year 1890.

22. Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur

Located in Jodhpur, Mehrangarh Fort is one of the largest forts in the country. It is located at the top of a 410 feet elevated hill and guarded by huge walls. The fort encloses a museum now which exhibits various belongings of the royals. The palace was built by Rao Jodha in 1459.

23. Konark Sun Temple, Odisha

Dedicated to Lord Surya, this 13th century temple is an architectural marvel and the quintessential example of Oriyan form of architecture. It is believed that the temple was constructed by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The shape of the temple is of a massive chariot with sumptuously engraved stone wheels, pillars and walls. A major part of the structure at present is in ruins. The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

24. Gwalior fort, India

Perched high at the top of a vast rocky massif, Gwalior Fort is a place hard to miss being visible from every nook and corner of the city. Regarded as one of most impregnable fortress of north and central India, the place is a must visit.

25. Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple, Delhi

Also known as the Delhi Akshardham, this temple complex was built in 2005 and sits deftly near the banks of River Yamuna.

26. Rani ki Vav, Patan

Rani ka Vav or 'Queen's Stepwell' is a unique step well located in the small town of Gujarat called Patan. Located on the banks of River Saraswati, it is not only a distinctive form of water resource and storage system but also represents a unique craftsmanship. Now a World Heritage Site as well, Rani ki Vav is a prime example of the rich architectures of stepwell and similar monuments of India.

27. Mahabalipuram Group of Monuments, Tamil Nadu

Known For : Shore Temple Mahabalipuram Beach Five Rathas

Famous for its intricately carved temples and rock-cut caves, Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram as it is famously known, is a historically important and well-loved tourist location situated on the Coromandel Coast along the Bay of Bengal, in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Best Time: November to February

28. Howrah Bridge, Kolkata

Located over the Hooghly river in West Bengal, Howrah Bridge or the Rabindra Setu is the main connection between Howrah and Kolkata. It is a cantilever bridge and is regarded as one of the busiest ones among them.

29. Nalanda University, Nalanda

Nalanda University Archaeological Complex is the excavated site of the ancient university. It is spread over an area of 14 hectares and is a major place of tourist attraction. The university complex had red brick buildings hemmed by gardens.

30. Murud Janjira Fort, Murud Janjira

Murud-Janjira is the local name for a fort situated on an island just off the coastal village of Murud, in the Raigad district of Maharashtra. The Fort is situated on an oval-shaped rock off the Arabian Sea coast, about 165 kms to south of Mumbai. Janjira is considered one of the strongest marine forts in India. Another fortress named Ghosalgad is located on top of the hill around 32 kms east of Murud-Janjira, and was used as an outpost for the rulers of Janjira.

31. Golkonda Fort, Hyderabad

Golconda Fort is a massive fortress whose ruins stand proudly even today displaying the glory of its rich past and some untold sagas of the city's history. The place oozing charm is a must visit. There are many fascinating features and stories about this fort which makes it one of the top monuments in India.

32. Hampi Group of Monuments, Karnataka

Known For : Virupaksha Temple, Hampi Vithala Temple Lotus Palace

Hampi, the city of ruins, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Situated in the shadowed depth of hills and valleys in the state of Karnataka, this place is a historical delight for travellers. Surrounded by 500 ancient monuments, beautiful temples, bustling street markets, bastions, treasury building and captivating remains of Vijayanagar Empire, Hampi is a backpacker's delight. Hampi is an open museum with 100+ locations to explore and a favourite way to see the city from the perspective of its history.

Best Time: October to March

33. Aihole, Karnataka

Known For : Durga Temple, Aihole Lad Khan Temple Ravanaphadi Cave Temples

Well known as the temple complex of Karnataka and home to about 100 temples, this city is a popular tourist destination.

Best Time: October to March

34. Badami, Karnataka

Known For : Cave Temples Agastya Lake Badami Fort

Located in a valley of rugged red sandstone, surrounding the Agastya Lake, Badami is an archaeological delight owing to its beautifully crafted sandstone cave temples, fortresses and carvings.

Best Time: October to Apr

35. Meenakshi Amman Temple, Madurai

This is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. It is primarily dedicated to Parvati, known as Meenakshi, and her spouse, Shiva. What makes this one of the unique monuments of India is that this is a temple different from the others, where both God and Goddess are worshipped together.

36. Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur

Gol Gumbaz, also known as Gola Gummata in literal sense means a circular dome. It is the mausoleum of Mohammed Adil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur. The tom is located in Bijapur, Karnataka and was built by architect Yaqut in 1656. It is considered as the structural triumph of Deccan architecture.

37. Shaniwar Wada, Pune

Standing tall in its full glory, Shaniwar Wada was once a stately mansion. Built as a dwelling for Peshwas, its foundation was laid by Bajirao I in year 1730 AD. Today it gives a chance to peak into its great past.

38. Basilica of Bom Jesus, Goa

This historic church is located in Goa and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Basilica of Bom Jesus houses the tomb and remains of St. Francis Xavier. Even after 400 years, the remains are in a good condition and are taken out once every decade.Up untill half a century ago, Goa was the capital of Portuguese rule in India and this is part of their heritage.

39. Vivekananda Rock Memorial, Kanyakumari

Vivekananda Rock Memorial is a well-known tourist monument placed in Vavathurai, Kanyakumari, India. The memorial stands on one of the two rocks, about 500 metres away from India's southern most tip. It was constructed in honour of Swami Vivekananda who is said to have attained enlightenment on this rock.

40. Cellular Jail, Andaman Nicobar-islands

The Cellular Jail aka Kala Pani word is derived from Sanskrit words 'Kal' which means Time or Death and 'Pani' which means Water. The Jail was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used by the British especially to exile political prisoners to the remote archipelago. Many notable dissidents such as Batukeshwar Dutt and Veer Savarkar were convicted and jailed here during Indian independence struggle. Today, the construction serves as a national memorial monument.

41. Bara Imambara, Lucknow

The Bara Imambara of Lucknow is one of the most famous monuments of the city. Also known as Asfi Imambara, after the name of the Nawab of Lucknow who got it constructed, it is an important place of worship for the Muslims who come here every year to celebrate the religious festival of Muharram. The Imambara is specially known for its incredible maze, known as Bhul Bhulaiya locally, which is located in the upper floor of the monument.

42. Pattadakal, Karnataka

Known For : Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal Kashiviswanatha Temple Jain Temple

Famous for its temples and other world heritage sites depicting a fusion architectural style, Pattadakkal is a town close to Aihole and Badami.

Best Time: October to March

43. Jaisalmer Fort, India

Jaisalmer Fort, nestled amid the golden sands of Thar Desert, is steeped with rich past and heritage. Displaying the brilliant craftsmanship, Jaisalmer Fort is one of the most renowned forts in the world.

44. Humayun's Tomb, New Delhi

Apart from being known for its stunning architecture, this is the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site declared in 1993, and has undergone widespread restoration work since then. The tomb was custom-built by Humayun's son Akbar during 1569-70 and is also the first structure to have made the use of red sandstone at a massive scale.

45. Chittorgarh Fort, India

Being one of the largest forts in India, Chittorgarh fort is a world heritage site. The fort was previously the capital of Mewar and is now situated in Chittorgarh. It is one of the most historically important forts in the entire north India and it reverberates with tales of heroism and sacrifice. It also displays the Rajput culture and values in the true sense.

46. City Palace, Jaipur

Located in Jaipur, The City Palace is the main palace from where the Maharaja reigned. The palace includes the Chandra Mahan and Mubarak Mahal along with various other buildings within the complex. It is located towards the north-eastern side of Jaipur.

47. Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

Located in New Delhi, the Jantar Mantar was one of the five sites built by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur. The site consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments. The main purpose of the observatory was to compile the astronomical tables and to predict the movement and timings of the sun, moon and planets.

48. Kumbhalgarh Fort, Rajasthan

Kumbhalgarh fort is one of the five hill forts of Rajasthan, among the many monuments in India that were declared the UNESCO world heritage site. This distinction was granted in 2013. It is situated in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan and lies very close to Udaipur. Constructed on the foothills of Aravalli ranges, it is surrounded by thirteen hill peaks of the ranges and is perched at an elevation of 1,914 m. It is the second largest and the most important Mewar fort of Rajasthan after Chittorgarh palace.

49. Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar

Jallianwala Bagh is a place of great historical importance during the Indian struggle for Independence. It is a public garden in Amritsar which houses a memorial of national importance that was established by the government of India in 1951 to commemorate the massacre of peaceful celebrators by British forces on April 13,1919.

50. Nalanda, Bihar - The Ancient Seat of Knowledge

Known For : Nalanda University Hiuen Tsang Memorial Hall The Great Stupa

The most popular Mahavihara of the ancient times, a significant Buddhist seat of academic excellence and a modest pilgrim center, all wrapped in a wisp of spirituality, Nalanda continues to be an equally enriching location in the present. It offers vibrant substance of spirituality, history, culture, architecture, and tourism.

Best Time: October to March

51. Champaner-Pavagadh, Gujarat

Known For : Kalika Mata Temple Pavagadh Fort Jain Temples in Pavagadh

Being included in the elite list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites across the globe, this marvellous archaeological park set in the heart of the city of Champaner and amidst the Pavagadh hills is one of the most sought after places in Gujarat.


Central and Eastern European Art since 1950

Maja and Reuben Fowkes, Central and Eastern European Art since 1950 (London: Thames and Hudson, 2020), 232 pp.

When Piotr Piotrowski published his now-famous art historical surveys In the Shadow of Yalta. Art and the Avant-Garde in Eastern Europe 1945-1989 ja Art and Democracy in Post-Communist Europe, the art of the region was only superficially known to broader audiences. It was mostly presented in group or solo exhibitions, and via several monographic studies, and it never acquired the kind of celebrity that ”non-conformist” art from the former Soviet Union enjoyed. In line with other theorists focused on post-colonial critiques of art history across the globe, Piotrowski used the comparative method to introduce the art produced in Central and Eastern Europe not as a derivative, but as a particular type of art, contextually shaped by sometimes antagonistic socio-political forces, while enriching the art historical vocabulary with terms such as ”horizontal art history” or ”spatial art history”.

Central and Eastern European Art since 1950 is an overview of the art in Eastern Europe that complements Piotrowski’s analyses almost ten years after their publication in English. Meanwhile, other monographic studies and broader analyses focused on the aesthetic and political autonomy of art and on specific media such as performance art have filled in the gaps in the Western-based artistic canon of late modern and contemporary art. For instance, Klara Kemp-Welch’s Antipolitics in Central European Art, Amy Bryzgel’s Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960, or Armin Medosch’s New Tendencies. Art at the Threshold of the Information Revolution (1961-1978), as well as collective volumes such as Performance art in the Second Public Sphere, edited by Katalin Cseh-Varga and Adam Czirak, or Art in Hungary 1956- 1980: Doublespeak and Beyond, edited by Edit Sasvari, Hedvig Turai and Sandor Hornyik, respectively, have expanded our previously limited knowledge of the art in the region, adding to the excellent books focused on nationally defined neo-avantgarde practices or on individual artists published in English by authors such as Ieva Astahovska, Andrea Bátorová, Boźena Czubak, Maja Fowkes, Daniel Grúň, Agata Jakubowska, Emese Kűrti, Pavlina Morganova or Alina Șerban. Works by artists associated with the Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Croatian, Serbian and Romanian neo-avant-garde are now part of the permanent collections of Western museums such as MoMA or Tate. Art historiography itself has also turned towards a more dynamic analysis of the artistic contacts and interactions that shaped artistic practice during Socialism, and of the institutional conditions and exhibition practices that facilitated its growth. We could mention here recent contributions such as Klara Kemp-Welch’s Networking the Bloc, Beata Hock’s and Anu Allas’ edited volume Globalizing East-European Art Histories or Tomas Pospiszyl’s An Associative Art History: Comparative Studies of Neo-Avant-Gardes in a Bipolar World, or the publication Art beyond Borders. Artistic Exchanges in Communist Europe (1945-1989), edited by Jerôme Bazin, Pascal Doubourg Glatigny and Piotr Piotrowski.

Maja and Reuben Fowkes’ survey takes into account these changes in the cultural field by carefully integrating mentionings of important art institutions and exhibitions as part of the contextual information required to understand the well-chosen artistic examples they present throughout the book. The institutional background provided replaces in concrete terms the often diluted political contextualisations that can be found in previous analyses. For instance, the impact of the ”New Tendencies” exhibition series for promoting art based on new technologies and scientific discourse within the broader category of ”abstract art”, the influence of the 1968 ”New Sensitivity” exhibition in promoting neo-constructivism in Czechoslovakia, the influence of theoretical symposia and plein-air gatherings during the 1960s for the development of experimental art forms, as well as performative interventions and process-based events are only some of the relevant art exhibitions mentioned in the book.( Other significant examples of relevant art exhibitions during the 1950s are the 1957 Spring Exhibition which signalled the recuperation of surrealism and abstraction in Hungary, or the Second Exhibition of Modern Art held at Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw in the same year which indicated the relaxation of aesthetic norms after the hegemony of socialist realism in the 1950s. )

These examples provide the necessary contextual information to understand how certain artistic trends developed locally. Such attentive, albeit brief analyses are also relevant since the performative, collaborative and often counter-cultural aspects of many of the artistic events taking place in the late 1960s and 1970s in Eastern Europe are often indistinguishable from their particular social, cultural, and political production context. They help the reader understand both the expansion of art towards the private sphere through self-institutionalizing gestures, and the disruption caused in the public space by these interventions of discursive artistic gestures. The usual suspects of art historical narratives, such as the Balatonboglár chapel, Foksal or Akumulatory 2 galleries or the Zagreb Cultural Student Center are complemented by lesser known, and more decentralized, art spaces such as the Wrocław’s Pod Mona Lisa Gallery, the Brno House of Art, Poznań’s odNOWA gallery, or the Subotica-based artist group Bosch+Bosch.

Platforms for international artist connections such as the Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts or the Belgrade International Theater Festival highlight the international artistic connections that are mentioned as often as possible when discussing the events the authors select as being relevant for their narrative. Such a complementary history of important art exhibitions, which, with few exceptions, was missing from Piotr Piotrowski’s books, is more than salutary, since many of the self-organised artist events during socialism became the very context of artistic production, while on other occasions they facilitated the circulation of artistic ideas across national borders. Another key addition in the survey is the short, but nevertheless significant account of the importance of art education in the region, as well as the inclusion of experimental film.

The desire to break away from canonical artists or art venues in order to produce a more inclusive narrative is also obvious in the selection of artists, which of course also needed to include those artists and artworks that are often found in multiple other narratives or art collections of Eastern European art during Socialism. Refreshingly, unavoidable names such as Geta Brătescu, Stano Filko, Györgi Galántai, Gorgona, Tomislav Gotovac, Ion Grigorescu, Sanja Iveković, Tadeusz Kantor, Július Koller, Julije Knifer, Milan Knižák, Jiři Kovanda, Jarosław Kozłowski, KwieKulik, László Lakner, Natalia L.L., Ana Lupaș, Dora Maurer, Paul Neagu, OHO, Ewa Partum, The Group of Six, Peter Štembera, Krzysztof Wodiczko, Jana Żelibská, Tamás Szentjóby, Balint Szombathy, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Goran Trbuljak, or Endre Tót are complemented by lesser-known artists such as Marian Zidaru or Aurel Vlad. Even so, although Zidaru and Vlad surely support the authors’ argument for the expansion of neo-expressionist painting during the 1980s, their selection of relevant Romanian artists or art projects does omit many other artists whose late neo-avantgarde practices were just as crucial, given the incongruences and asynchronicities among the institutional and political artistic contexts of Eastern European nations during the 1970s and 1980s.

It is a pity that crucial contextual observations become scarce in the last chapters dedicated to art after 1989, where contextual analysis is often being diluted by general remarks about the artists’ particular reactions to contemporary social transformations and, to a lesser extent, about the mechanisms of the contemporary art market or the global expansion of large-scale exhibition projects. Besides the emergence of more powerful local institutions, the global “exhibitionary complex” established during the 1990’s was equally formative of the establishment of geographically descriptive categories such as “Eastern European Art” and for identity politics of the 1990s. Therefore, a more precise account of some important moments in this respect—such as the Balkan-themed exhibitions and the large scale retrospectives of the early 2000s, a more detailed account of the rise of Manifesta, or a comparative analysis of the fraught context in which new institutions such as contemporary art museums appeared during the 2000s—would have added depth to the contextual background the authors are otherwise patiently reconstructing throughout the book, explaining each time changes that occurred on both the spatial axis, at the national level, and on the diachronic axis.

The narrative, structured chronologically by decades, focuses less on the political effects and ideological underpinnings of art under and after Socialism than on its aesthetic regime and, sometimes, on the broader cultural (philosophical or scientific) background of the chosen artworks. On the one hand, this is a refreshing move away from the over-politicized art historical discourse that risked to transform art itself into a mere derivative of the political sphere. Still, politics is never expelled from the narrative: it lurks in the background, often presiding over a whole chapter, such as the one dedicated to the 1970s dubbed “Practicing Impossible Art.” Yet it is at the same time never obtrusive, and it mainly reveals itself through the way it constrains the institutional mechanisms of art. On the other hand, such aesthetic autonomy comes with a price: the in-depth comparative analyses of artists and frequent theoretical commentaries that punctuated Piotrowski’s account (especially those concerning methodology) are unfortunately missing from the present survey. As a result, the narrative on occasion slips inevitably into a linear accumulation of artistic projects and products.

Clearly, the book intends to be mainly informative rather than analytical, and in doing so, Maja and Reuben Fowkes have clearly succeeded. They manage to condense a dazzling number of artistic examples into a pocket-size book meant to be used not only by scholars and curators who specialize in art from Central and Eastern Europe. Their analyses of artworks are precise and highlight only information that is vital for orientation and understanding. The book is balanced, well-informed and concise. It subtly engages the more recent tendency of epistemic decolonization by pointing to the local traditions and artistic terminologies employed by artists themselves to describe their art (“explosionalism,” “contextual art,” “Hapsoc,” etc.). It is also attentive to the effects of globalization on the contemporary circulation of images and artworks in the last decade, proposing a convincing theoretical framework for understanding contemporary art as a field of experiential and political uncertainty.

That being said, and despite the intelligent positioning and excellent historiographic skills of the authors, there are several questions related to the very project of such a comprehensive survey that are left unanswered. The most comprehensive among these concerns the author’s choice to present art from the region as a coherent, more or less monolithic compound. In their effort to paint the portrait of a Central and Eastern European art inextricably linked with Socialism—its constraints, its outright critique and rejection after 1989, and its recollection as a critical form of nostalgia in the 2000s—they are forced to resort to the same lateral move across national art historical narratives and art scenes that obliged Piotrowski to acknowledge an a-synchronic and heterogeneous artistic development among the national art fields that compose Central and Eastern Europe. For Maja and Reuben Fowkes, too, the aesthetic characteristics of the most significant art produced in the region point to transnational similarities that help stabilize the otherwise unfixed conceptual category “Eastern European art.”

The authors acknowledge that Central and Eastern European artists contributed to the decentralized paradigm of contemporary world art by bringing a specific Socialist ethos to their international contacts during the Cold War, or by recalling the legacy of Socialism after 1989, thus provide a stable local identity to art practices that were otherwise often similar to their Western counterparts. Yet while Central and Eastern European Art since 1950 offers a large number of illustrative examples for this fact, by selecting for their survey mainly those well-known artists who were either collected or exhibited by the global capitalist art system after 1989, the authors implicitly submit to an intellectual market place that has managed to transform the idea of Socialism into little more than a domesticated critical tool of our contemporaneity. As we know, many of the now-famous artists from the former Socialist block were snubbed at the time by curators such as Harald Szeemann, while after 1989 their work endured partisan readings that were prone to exoticize their criticality. Fortunately, Maja and Ruben Fowkes’ reading corrects many of these interpretive fallacies. In order to become even more convincing, it might be complemented by more comparative research that would reveal how exactly the bilateral transmission of ideas and aesthetic forms across the Iron Curtain, as well as their interaction with art from non-Western geographical regions, affected not only art historical epistemology, but also the trajectory of art in the world’s major art centers. That, of course, would be a more demanding task, and one that the authors certainly could not take on in their overall excellent introduction to Central and Eastern European art. They left it open up to future researchers, much like Piotr Piotrowski did in his time.


Vaata videot: KOOLI TV 73 (Juuli 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Samutaur

    Vabandust, aga minu arvates tehakse vigu. Peame arutama. Kirjutage mulle PM -is, rääkige.

  2. Faraj

    It is remarkable, rather amusing idea

  3. Teremun

    Sa ei eksinud

  4. Mekazahn

    Aitäh. Lugesin seda huviga. Lemmikutele lisatud ajaveeb =)



Kirjutage sõnum