Ajalugu Podcastid

Laulja, Isaac - ajalugu

Laulja, Isaac - ajalugu


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Leiutaja ja tootja

(1811-1875)

Isaac Merrit Singer sündis 27. Ja 20 aastat (1830–1850) elas ta rändnäitleja ja osalise tööajaga mehaanikuna. Tema elu muutus aga 1851. aastal, kui ta ehitas nähtud õmblusmasina oluliselt täiustatud versiooni. Tähelepanuväärne seade, tema leiutis võimaldas pidevat õmblust, nii sirget kui ka kõverat; see võimaldas õmmelda ka materjali mis tahes kohta.

Samal aastal sõlmis ta partnerluse advokaat Edward Clarkiga; ja 1860. aastaks olid nad maailma juhtivamad õmblusmasinate tootjad. Pärast Singeri tootmisettevõtte asutamist 1863. aastal läks ta pensionile ja kolis Inglismaale. Singer elas 12 aastat palees, mille ta oli ehitanud (Wigwam) Inglismaa rannikule ja suri 23. juulil 1875 Inglismaal Torquays.


Isaac M. Laulja

Isaac Singer töötas välja esimese praktilise koduse õmblusmasina ja tõi selle üldkasutusse. Singer sündis New Yorgis Pittstownis saksa juudi immigrantide juurde ja lahkus kaheteistkümneaastaselt kodust ning rändas aastaid Kirde-Euroopas, töötades erinevalt karnevalidel, näitleja ja mehaanikuna. 1839. aastal patenteeris ta ekskavaatori, 1840. aastatel aga metalli- ja puunikerdusmasina.

Aastal 1850 töötas Singer Massachusettsi osariigis Bostonis masinatöökojas, kui tal paluti analüüsida Blodgett & amp Lerow õmblusmasinat, mis oli toodud remonti. Singer töötas selle masina põhjal välja uue disaini, patenteeris selle 1851. aastal ja asutas (koos Edward Clarkiga) I. M. Singer Company selle turustamiseks. Kuigi Singeri masin oli olemasolevate mudelitega võrreldes suur edasiminek, osaliselt selle pideva söötmise funktsiooni tõttu, kaebas ta kolm aastat hiljem patendi rikkumise eest kohtusse Edias Howe, kes registreeris oma õmblusmasina disaini 1846. aastal. patendi ühendamise ja litsentsilepingud aastal 1856 võimaldasid Singeri masinate tootmist jätkata pidevate täiustustega. Aastaks 1860 oli Singeri tootmisettevõttest saanud maailma suurim õmblusmasinate valmistaja ja aastaks 1863 oli Singer saanud masinatele kakskümmend patenti.

Singer teenis oma ettevõttelt miljoneid dollareid ja elas edevalt, nautides koos oma armukestega kollases treeneris New Yorgi kesklinna pargisõite-see polnud õige kuvand ettevõttele, kes üritas õmblusmasinaid keskklassi koduperenaistele müüa. Laulja loobus äritegevusest 1863. aastal, reisides enne Euroopasse asumist Torquay'sse Inglismaale, kus ta ehitas mõisa ja julgustas oma kakskümmend neli last (seaduslikud ja ebaseaduslikud) külastama. Pärast surma jättis Singer maha 13 miljoni dollari suuruse pärandvara.


Lauljafirma

Meie toimetajad vaatavad teie esitatud teabe üle ja otsustavad, kas artiklit muuta.

Lauljafirma, korporatsioon, mis kasvas välja õmblusmasinate ärist, mille asutas Ameerika Ühendriikides Isaac M. Singer.

Ettevõte asutati 1863. aastal Singeri tootmisettevõttena, võttes üle äri IM Singer & amp Company, mis oli loodud Singeri poolt 1851. aastal patenteeritud õmblusmasina turustamiseks. Ettevõte võttis 1963. aastal nime Singer Company ja reorganiseeriti Singer NV Hollandis 2000. aastal. 2004. aastal müüdi õmblusäri ja Singeri kaubamärgid USA eraõiguslikule investeerimisühingule ning 2006. aastal sai see osaks SVP Worldwide'ist, mis ühendas Singeri kahe teise suure õmblusmasinaga Husqvarna Viking ja PFAFF tootjad.

Singeri esialgne disain, mis oli esimene praktiline õmblusmasin üldiseks koduseks kasutamiseks, sisaldas põhilist silmateraga nõela ja lukkõmblust, mille töötas välja Elias B. Howe, kes võitis Singeri vastu 1854. aastal patendirikkumise hagi. piisavalt patente selles valdkonnas, et võimaldada tal tegeleda masstootmisega ning 1860. aastaks oli tema ettevõte maailma suurim õmblusmasinate tootja.

Singer hakkas oma masinaid rahvusvaheliselt turustama 1855. aastal ja võitis Pariisi maailmanäitusel esimese auhinna. Ettevõte demonstreeris esimest töökõlblikku elektrilist õmblusmasinat Philadelphia elektrinäitusel 1885. aastal ja alustas kodumaiste elektrimasinate masstootmist 1910. Singer oli ka turundusuuendaja ja oli teerajaja järelmaksukavade kasutamise edendamisel.

Lisaks õmblusmasinatele valmistas ettevõte ka elektritööriistu, põrandahooldustooteid, mööblit ja elektroonikaseadmeid. 1970ndate lõpus ja 80ndatel hakkas Singer mitmekesistama lennundus-elektroonika ja muude kõrgtehnoloogiliste esemete tootmist.

Seda artiklit uuendas ja uuendas hiljuti toimetaja assistent Jeannette L. Nolen.


Sotsiaalne ja majanduslik mõju

Isaac Merrit Singeri õmblusmasin mitte ainult ei teinud revolutsiooni koduses õmblemises, vaid aitas avada ka uue olulise tööstusharu. Enne Singeri leiutist puudus riiete tootmiseks industrialiseeritud süsteem. Kõik riided valmistati käsitsi. Singeri masina kasutuselevõtuga saaks toota 900 õmblust minutis, mis on tohutu paranemine võrreldes 30–40 -ga, mida võiks pakkuda käsikanalisatsioon.

Kui Singeri masinate praktilisus aitas neid populaarseks muuta, oli tema edu ka uuendusliku turunduse tulemus. Ta oli üks esimesi ärimehi, kes mõistis reklaami jõudu. Laulja esimene järelmaksuga krediidiplaan võimaldas tal müüa oma masinaid sel ajal väga kõrge hinnaga, umbes 75 dollariga. Ta algatas ka teenuse osutamise praktika müügiga - seda poliitikat kasutatakse siiani. 1860. aastateks aitasid need strateegiad Singeri tootmisettevõttel saada maailma juhtivaks õmblusmasinate tootjaks.

Kronoloogia: Isaac Merrit Singer

1839: Sai esimese patendi kivimiga masinale.

1849: Leiutas puunikerdaja.

1850: Leiutas uue õmblusmasina.

1851: Moodustati õmblusmasinate ettevõte.

1856: Kaotas patendirikkumise juhtumi Elias Howele.

1864: Asutatud ettevõte.

1990. aastateks olid Singeri õmblusmasinad endiselt üks juhtivaid kaubamärke selles valdkonnas. Kaasaegsed arvutipõhised mudelid hindasid kuni 3500 dollarit. Singer Company hargnes oma põhitegevusest, et toota ka tolmuimejaid ja vaipade puhastusvahendeid. Ettevõttes töötab endiselt ainulaadne teeninduskeskus, mis remondib ja restaureerib vanaaegseid mudeleid antiigihuvilistele. Üllataval kombel kasutavad paljud arenenud tehnoloogia ajastul paljud tehased ja kodukasutajad neid vanu masinaid uute rõivaste loomiseks.


Laulja, Isaac - ajalugu

Vanade ja vanade õmblusmasinate jaoks

Kirjanik ja käsitöömeister Alex Askaroff on kogu elu õmblustööstuses veetnud ning teda peetakse üheks teerajaja masinate ja nende leiutajate üheks parimaks eksperdiks.

Alex on kirjutanud palju kaubandusajakirjade, raadio, televisiooni, raamatute ja väljaannete jaoks kogu maailmas. Võib -olla olete teda hiljuti näinud BBC saates The Great British Sewing Bee.

Vaata Alex Askaroffit Youtube'is koos lauljaga 12

Isaac Merritt Singeri lugu on otse Ameerika folkloorist. Isaac põgenes probleemsest kodust karnevalile, mis läbis tema linna.

Isaacist sai oma vaimu järgi üks oma aja rikkamaid mehi, ammu enne Ameerika ajaloo suurmehi nagu Carnegie, Ford ja Rockefeller.

Iisaku lugu on üks sõdadest ja naistest, oma testamendis nimetas ta d üle 20 oma lapse ja tegi igaühe rikkaks, ületades nende metsikumad unistused.

Isaac Singer kirjutas oma ajaloo oma ainulaadses stiilis ja kui ta vanana suri, oli ta abielus Euroopa ilusaima, 30 aastat noorema naisega (kaanepilt).

Iisaku leiutised aitasid käivitada suurima tööstusliku kasvu, mida Ameerika oli kunagi näinud, ja tegi sellest esimese maailma suurriigi. Tema tehnikad, müügitegevus ja ettevõtlusoskus tõid töökohti miljonitele inimestele kogu maailmas ja tegid Singerist nime.

Isaaci lugu lööb su meele läbi ja võib olla lihtsalt parim lugu, mis pole kunagi Hollywoodi jõudnud

Isaac Singer
Autor: Alex Askaroff

Isaac Merritt Laulja Oktoober 1811 - juuli 1875

Mis mees! Kui ma lapsena õmblustööstuses üles kasvasin, hakkasin Isaac Singerist lugusid kuulama, olin vaimustuses. Ta elas Ameerika unistust. Tõeline kaltsukate lugu, siis läks kõik valesti. Kuid sõdade ja naiste viimases keerdkäigus leidis Isaac Singer rahu. Ta asutas ka dünastia, mis kestab siiani.

Kõigist õmblusmasinate pioneeridest, kellest olen viimaste aastakümnete jooksul kirjutanud, paistab Isaac Singeri elu silmapaistvalt hämmastavana. Kujutage ette ämblikuvõrku, mis ulatub üle maakera ja mille keskel on üks mees. See mees on Isaac Merritt Singer.

Nad ütlevad, et mõni mees on elus puudutatud tulest, Isaac oli üks neist meestest. Alates sündimisest kuni surmani oli ta mees, kes seisis pea ja õlad rahvahulga kohal, ja mitte ainult seetõttu, et ta oli üle kuue jala viieaastane!

Kuigi Isaac Merritt Singer väitis oma suremispäevale, et ta leiutas esimese korraliku õmblusmasina, tegi ta seda ja mitte. See, mida geenius tegi, oli võtta tolleaegsest olemasolevast parim ja teha midagi paremat, ajastu esimene praktiline õmblusmasin. Samuti leiutas ta kivide kaevamiseks mehaanilise kaevamismasina, kivipuurimismasina, puidu nikerdamis- ja lõikamismasina ning printeritüüpi kirja lõikamismasina ja patenteeris kümneid õmblusmasinate täiustusi.

Oma parima loomingu, õmblusmasinaga reklaamisid ta koos käsitsi valitud meestega seda nii hämmastava sära ja võimekusega, et sellest sai maailmas omataoline number üks. Turundusekspertidel oleks tänapäeval hea uurida Singeri meetodeid, kuna need olid lihtsalt parimad. Alates igasuguse vastuseisu hävitamisest kuni massiliste andmisviiside ja kaunite mudeliteni kasutas Isaac kõiki võimalikke taktikaid oma masinate reklaamimiseks.

Lubage mul rääkida mehest, kellest sai perekonnanimi, mõned ütlevad, et seda teavad rohkem inimesed üle maailma kui Jeesus.

Isaac Singer oli erakordne ja keeruline mees. Ta kasvas rahata kavalust ja petlikust tänavatarkast poisist, kes elas oma mõistuse järgi, üheks maailma rikkaimaks meheks. Ka tema iseloom muutus nooruses külmaverelisest ja halastamatust, rõõmsameelseks heategijaks, kes vanemas eas lastepidusid korraldas.

Kui Isaac Singer suri, luges avalikkus lehti uskumatult, suu lahti ja punnis silmad. Kuidas sai olla võimalik, et üks mees, kes oli tulnud eimillestki ja tänavatel kerjanud, suri üks maailma rikkamaid mehi? Ja tema lapsed! Isaac võttis oma testamendis aega, et nimetada neist 24 erinevat naist ja armukest, jättes neile kõik suured usaldused, mis tegid nad rikkaks. Iisaku varandus oli nii suur, et see kestis viis põlvkonda, enne kui see lõpuks ära jooksis.

Samuti pole kahtlust, et temast sündis hulgaliselt teisi lapsi ja paljud tema õed -vennad panid Euroopa hiljem avalikkuse, skandaali ja väikese intriigi põlema.

Isaac Singer eristus nagu kunagi varem, näidatud siin hilisemas elus ühe maailma rikkaima mehena. Selle pildi kinkis Singers Smithsonianile. See näitab Isaacit oma lemmik suitsetamisjopes. Tema lapsed armastasid teda seljas oma palees, Oldway's Paigntonis, Inglismaal, kuna nad ütlesid, et see nägi ta välja nagu jõuluvana. Ta juustes oli punast värvi, ta oli üle kuue jala pikk, tal olid hüpnootilised silmad ja ta oli naistele täiesti vastupandamatu.

Enamik meist teab nime Singer, kuid vähesed on teadlikud tema hämmastavast eluloost, tema kaltsukatest rikkusteni rändamisest väikesest põgenemisest ühe omaealise rikkaima mehe juurde. Isaac Merritt Singeri lugu lööb meelt, tema naised ja armastajad tema lossid ja paleed on ehitatud 19. sajandi ühe suurima leiutise tagaküljele. Esmakordselt toob Alex Askaroff teile täieliku loo unustatud hiiglasest.

Sain oma raamatu kätte ja hakkasin seda lugema. Armastan juba lugu ja oma kirjutamisstiili. Tänan teid, härra Askaroff. Mulle isegi meeldisid ümbrikus olevad templid - kuninganna Elizabeth ja By Airmail Royal Mail. Võiks proovida kasutada ümbrikupaberit ja templeid ning teha raamatule järjehoidja. Head uut aastat! Brenda, Lõuna -Carolina, USA

Kathy McGraw DiPaolo Imeline lugemine!

Lugesin su raamatu ühe päevaga läbi! Armastan seda. Suur tänu selle kirjutamise ja meile nii palju õpetamise eest.

Judy T. Kohlruss -
Amazoni kinnitatud ost
See arvustus on pärit: Isaac Singer: Esimene kapitalist (Paperback)
Seda raamatut lugeda on nagu istuda autori vastas, rüübata teed ja kuulata lugusid möödunud päevade kohta, selle asemel et lugeda kuivalt kirjutatud ajalooraamatut. See on täis võitlust, ettevõtete ülevõtmist ja ebaseaduslikke asju, mille tulemuseks on toode, ilma milleta ma kunagi hakkama ei saaks.

Amerlia Erhardti ja looduse seikleja (Jacksonville, FL USA)
Amazoni kinnitatud ost
See arvustus on pärit: Isaac Singer: Esimene kapitalist (Paperback)
Huvitav lugeda nii palju mehest, kes tõi õmblusmasina miljonitele inimestele.

Kallis Alex,
Sain just oma eksemplari uuest raamatust Isaac Singer: Esimene kapitalist, see on imeline! Tänan teid selle huvitava mehe ajaloo kirjutamise eest.
Sandra Cohron

Alex, lihtsustatult öeldes, sa oled suurepärane kirjanik,
Rede Batcheller

Karolyn Nubin Jensen Alex Askaroff. Sain teilt oma koopia. Ma elan Arizonas. Mul on olnud hea meel seda lugeda. Ma armastan teie kirjutamisstiili ja imestan hr Singeri elu üle. Suurepärane töö!
Kathy McGraw DiPaolo Imeline lugemine!


Hämmastava autori Alex Askaroffi kauaoodatud raamat - Esimene kapitalist - Isaac. 24. november 2014
Proua S. P. Brown - avaldatud Amazon.com -is

Hämmastava autori Alex Askaroffi kauaoodatud raamat - Esimene kapitalist - Isaac Singer. Milline raamat ja milline kaas - miljonid ja miljonid ameeriklased, kellele Singer õmblusmasin on nii kaua olnud kodune nimi, kihutavad kahtlemata raamatupoodi, et osta koopia sellest ikoonilise Isaac Singeri täiesti haaravast ajaloost. On vaid aja küsimus, millal sellest film tehakse. Kui uskumatu, et Alex Askaroff on 30 aastat oma elust kogu seda teavet kogunud. See on kohustuslik lugemisvõimalus 2014. aastaks ja milline jõuluvana jõulukink innukalt ootavatele jõulusokkidele pista.

Vorming: Paperback Amazoni kinnitatud ost
Kiire saatmine ja head lugemist! Olin 29. novembrist 2014 Singeri kohta palju lugenud
Ponydriveri poolt

Vorming: Paperback Amazoni kinnitatud ost
Kiire saatmine ja head lugemist! Olin Singerist palju lugenud, kuid see raamat süvenes põhjalikumalt mehe enda ja tema perekonna kohta. Väga huvitav. Head pildid ka.
Imeliselt kirjutatud !! 25. novembril 2014
Autor: joan sohlstrom


Vorming: Paperback Amazoni kinnitatud ost
See raamat on hämmastav !! Sellise hästi kirjutatud raamatu loomiseks tehti palju uuringuid. Tasub osta ja lugeda. Hästi kirjutatud ja faktiline raamat selle mehe hämmastavast elust, kenasti illustreeritud ja kunagi igav. Viis tähte, 25. november 2014
Signman - avaldatud Amazon.com -is


Vorming: Paperback Amazoni kinnitatud ost
Suurepärane raamat, kõik, kes on huvitatud õmblusmasinatest, peaksid ostma selle raamatu, hästi kirjutatud, palju fakte, mitte igavalt, nagu mõned raamatud, ostnud mu tütrele teise eksemplari, mis on seda hinda ja selles sisalduvat teavet väärt.

Viis tähte
Autor: Dan, 26. november 2014
Vorming: Paperback
Suurepärane raamat suurepäraselt autorilt. Huvitav lugemine lauljast ja tema elust. Väga hinnatud autor.

Tere Alex Olen Clarki fondi vabatahtlik. Palju õnne hr Singeri suurepärase jutustuse puhul.
Paul R Dolan ABC News International

Suurepärane raamat. Tänan teid, et kirjutasite selle loo ja nii nutikalt. See paneb mind veelgi väärtustama oma seitset Singeri masinat.
Jätkake kirjutamist.
Sandra Cohron

Härra Askaroff,
Lihtsalt lühike märkus, et öelda, kui väga ma nautisin teie uue Singeri -raamatu lugemist, ja anda teile teada, et sain selle 6. detsembril Alabamas. Sellesse piirkonda on maetud Iisaku lapselaps (Pariisi lapselaps). Francis Merritt Singer, ma komistasin tema hauale täiesti juhuslikult kohalikus surnuaias jalutades.
Tänan teid kõigi uuringute eest.
Lugupidamisega
David Brady

Shelly Garno Teie raamat on suurepärane! Sain oma koopia kätte USA -s Michiganis!

Kathy McGraw DiPaolo Väga huvitav lugemine. See hindab minu õmblusmasinaid palju rohkem.

Kathleen Dunnigan Ma sain oma Louisiana osariigis ja naudin seda tohutult. Väga hästi kirjutatud. Tänan sind väga.

Shelly Garno Alex, mulle väga meeldib see raamat ja sa oled andekas kirjanik.

Tänan Isaac Singeri loo eest.
Väga huvitav oli leida tema seos
Vabadussammas, millest olen üles kõndinud
lapsena sülle.
Aitäh väga huvitava ajalootunni eest.
Olin üllatunud, et ta hõlmas surma ajal ka paljusid oma abieluväliseid lapsi
kurjategijate krediit.

Mulle meeldib teie teave Singeri kohta ja lugu masina taga olevast mehest.

Lugesin teie Singeri perekonna ajalugu. Uskumatu!

Minu ema isa oli pärit Alsace Lorraine'ist, perekonnanimega "Ostja". "Kuna Isabella isa oli Lõuna -Aafrika Vabariik, kas siis eeldatakse, et tema isa oli valge, aga kas ta oli? Oleks tore teada, kas ta on tõenäoliselt kahepiiriline, st Lõuna -Aafrika must ja prantslane. Kuigi nendel aegadel arvasite, et kõik oleksid hirmunud. Aga kunagi ei või teada, kuna me kõik oleme segased, kui asi sellesse puutub.

Margaret
USA Virginia osariik

Sa hoidsid mind üleval oma Singeri lugu lugedes, ma armastan su kirjutamisstiili. Väga huvitav ja viitab tolle aja "rikkale ja kuulsale". Neil oli tollal raha suhtes suhtumine & quot; saate aru, uhkeldama & quot & quot ;.

Ma ei kirjuta paljudele inimestele nende saite lugedes, kuid teie kirjutamisstiil on mulle nii kallis, et pean teile sellest lihtsalt teada andma.

Alex,
Teie lugu on lihtsalt põnev ja nii hästi kirjutatud. Samuti hindasin väga palju teie lisatud fotosid. Tänan teid väga selle töö eest ja jagasite seda heldelt meiega.

Ma arvan, et ajaloos pole kedagi, kes oleks päris Issac Singer!
Sharon Wyper

Tere Alex,
Suurepärane töö, püha makrell!
Nii et ma abiellusin laulja järeltulijaga. Ta rääkis alati pärijaks olemisest.

See oli esimene kord, kui lugesin a
elulugu bout Singeriga leidsime teie stiili väga
meelelahutuslik!

Suur tänu informatiivse veebisaidi eest. Lugesin iga sõna Isaac Singeri kohta ja mulle meeldis see iga minut. Milline hämmastav mees oli Isaac.
Sarah Young
Petaluma, California

Minu nimi on Sonia McNulty (neiuna Anthonisz). Mul oli nii hea meel leida teie huvitav raamat Isaac Singeri kohta. Minu nõbu Edith Anthonisz oli abielus Fred Singeriga, kes võttis üle tema (ma arvan, et vanaisade? Impeeriumi).

Tänan teid, et kulutasite selle väärtusliku aja loomiseks selle vapustava teose valmimiseks ja loodan, et filmirežissöör premeerib teid, muutes selle uskumatuks filmiks.

Igatahes väga huvitav lugemine. Mul polnud aimugi.

Tere Alex,
Mulle meeldis teie imeliselt uuritud ja komponeeritud lugu oma kolmanda vanaisa Isaac Merritt Singerist.

Me kasvasime üles õmblusmasinate lugude üle uhked ja teadsime, et Isaac oli "kaabakas"

Aitäh veelkord ilusa ja värvika essee eest!

James Justin Merritt Lancaster
Belmont, MA

Tere Alex
Lõpetasin just teie loo lugemise Isaac Singerist, seltskonnast ja Singeri perekonnast. Tõeliselt põnev elu ja murranguline ettevõte mitmel viisil. Ma võin kindlasti näha Singeris PBS -sarja (umbes nagu Selfridges'i seriaali, mis on siin USA -s mänginud).
Suur tänu, et jagasite kõiki oma teadmisi ja teadmisi.
Linda Classon

Nii Sussex sündis kui ka arenes ning kuningriigi nurk
on nüüd Kindle'is ja iPadis kohe saadaval.


Miks Isaac Bashevis Singeri Chelmi lood pole mõeldud ainult lastele

Isaac Bashevis Singer sündis 1902. aastal Poolas Leonimis ja suri 1991. aastal Floridas. 1978. aastal võitis ta Nobeli kirjandusauhinna kirjanduse eest, mis rõõmustas juute igal pool. See oli õigustus meie kingitustele maailmale, kaudne vabandus kristlastelt, kes arvasid, et meie pea suurus piirab meie ajusid. See tegi ka Bernard Malamudi kadedaks ja võib -olla ka tuhandeid teisi juudi kirjanikke.

Need Chelmi rahvajutud, mis pole sugugi Singersi kõige olulisem kirjandusteos, olid hõljunud juudi maailmas ammu enne seda, kui Singer need enda omaks tegi. Kuid Singer tegi nad kuulsaks ja Singer, jidiši kirjanduse kelmikas, rumal vanaisa, painutas nad oma eesmärkide poole. Chelm on kujuteldav väikelinn Pales ja selle elanikud on täiesti ilma vaimukuse, hariduse või isegi põhiliste ellujäämisoskusteta ning oma pentsikul moel, nii vaesed kui rumalad. Chelmi lood mõnitavad kõiki juute, kes arvasid, et suudavad valgustatuse alla neelata sama lihtsalt kui hammustus saia toorjuustuga.

Singer räägib meile Chelmi päritolust: „Alguses tekkis Chelmis jõgi. See sisaldas palju kalu ja need olid tšelmiitide esivanemad. See võib olla põhjus, miks tšelmiidid armastavad kala, eriti gefilte kala. ” See Darwini ja muinasjutu hautis on mõrkjas ja sageli vastupandamatult võluv.

Chelmis kuulutab juht Gronan Ox sõja naaberkülale Gorshkovile, sest näeb sõda väljapääsuna linna vaevavast vaesusest. Uudis ”levis kogu Chelmis, et sõda Gorškovi vastu on tulemas ja see plaan on„ väga valvatud saladus ”. Muidugi on tšelmiidid pealetungiööl külmetunud ja nuusutavad. Loomulikult kaotavad nad oma tee ja tungivad selle asemel Mazelborschti linna ning selles linnas tähistatakse lihunike ja kutsarite pulmapidu ning nad peksid kiiresti Chelmist räsitud armee ja ajasid nad minema. Tagasi Chelmi juurde pöördudes on Gronan Oxi naine Yente Pesha ehmunud tema muljutud välimuse tõttu, nii et naine tühjendab tema jalad. Ta on ülemuslik, tundetu, vastik. Yente on borši vöö nali palees, millel polnud borši vööd.

Tšelmiidid püüavad toime tulla vaesusega, mis muudab enamiku nende kodanike elu nii raskeks. Nad mõtlevad lahenduste kogumile, mis kajastab igasuguste sotsialistide, kommunistide ja idealistide ideid, kuid näevad kiiresti, et miski ei tööta, raha ei tühistata, raha kõigile välja ei anta, seda või teist käitumist ei tellita. Inimkoguduse olemus ei ole jagada ja julmus, kuigi see ei ole ainuõige ühelegi konkreetsele erakonnale, näib valitsevat kõikjal, kindlasti Chelmis.

Tegelikult töötasid Shtetli linnades naised kõvasti ja toetasid terveid pataljone teadlasi. Nad õmblesid ja küpsetasid ning müüsid turul kaupu. Väikestes linnades toimusid vaesuses sattunud meeste ja naiste vahel veidrad asjad. Shtetli elanikud tegelesid pideva haigusohuga ja kartusega oma mitte nii sõbralike naabrite ees.

Me ei pruugi soovida olla liiga sentimentaalsed shtetli suhtes: Chagalli lehmad hüppavad üle kuu ja viiuldajad katusel ja kõik.

Me näeme Singeri Chelmi lugudes lõputute Jackie Masoni naljade visandeid, juudi poegade ja nende armastavate või liiga armastavate emade ja nende vähem väärtustatud õdede vahel valitsevat imelikku pinget ning pingeid, mis meid kimbutasid isegi Ameerikas.

Singeri muinasjutus alandab Yente oma meest, kui ta sunnib teda nõusid pesema. „Ära kaota aega. Võtke kroon maha, pange põll selga ja asuge tööle.

Singeri jaoks oli see vist naljakas. Kuid seda lugedes meenusid mulle kõik kohutavad juudi printsessi naljad, mis meie peale sadasid, ja juudi emade naljad, mis jätsid mulje, nagu oleksid juudi emad kannibaliseerinud oma poegi isegi siis, kui nad säästsid raha meditsiinikooli saatmiseks.

Ma tean, et see on ainult nali. Naljades on aga kultuurilisi näpunäiteid ja nali “võta mu naine, palun võta ta” pole nii naljakas, kui tead, et see põhineb milleski väga valesti meeste ja naiste vahelises jõustruktuuris ning see ei peegelda mitte armastust, vaid vihkamist, mis on ainult naljakas kui sa liiga palju ei mõtle selle laialivalgumisele ja selle valgustatavale valule.

Tšelmiidid tegid oma teadmatuses segaduses magusaid asju. Teises Singer Chelmi loos püüavad Chelmi vanemad kuu peegelduse vanni, et nad saaksid selle valguse abil pilviste ööde pimedust vähendada. Võib -olla oli see päikeseenergia varane torge.

Need Chelmi lood avaldatakse nüüd lastele, kuid ma arvan, et see on viga. Lapsed ei mõistaks kunagi seda poliitiliste kirgede satiiri. Sotsialiste, kapitaliste, unistajaid ja kõigi kogukondade skeemitajaid naeruvääristatakse siin, kui nad püüavad lahendada ja lahendada vaesuse probleeme, mis jäävad lahendamatuks, lahenduseks raskesti tabatavaks ja kimbutavad meid ka tänapäeval väljaspool Chelmi või oleme ikka Chelmis?

Laulja lööb poliitiliste vigade keskmes igas meie valitsetud süsteemis. Kahjuks ei paku ta lahendust meie ahnusele ja ebavõrdsusele. See pole muidugi autori vastutus. Teisest küljest pole meie ühiskondlikus suutmatuses üksteisest hoolida midagi naljakat. Ma arvan, et juudid toetavad meie rahvast rohkem kui enamik inimesi, kuid sellest ei piisa kunagi, mitte enne, kui tuleb Messias.

Siiski vajab see selgitust, miks need jutud meeldisid nii tugevalt getodest lahkunud juutidele, kes ise teadsid Abraham Lincolni ja Thomas Jeffersoni ning Thomas Edisoni lugusid jne. kaasaegne Ameerika.

Irving Howe kirjutas nendest Chelmi lugudest. Ta arvas, et need tõusid 19. sajandi lõpu ja 20. sajandi alguse valgustusmaailma pingetest. Ta arvas, et juudid tahavad harimatuid juute nalja visata ja distantseeruda teaduslikust teadmatusest. Seda teadmatust olid jõustanud vaenulikud valitsejad, vaenulikud inimesed, kes takistasid juutidel omandiõigust, gümnaasiume, ülikoole ja elamist kõikjal, kuhu võimalus neid viis.

Minu ema, kes sündis Ameerikas 1910. aastal ühest Poola juudi linnast pärit emale, rääkis mulle, et seks enne abiellumist sünnitab mu lapsed suulaelõhedega. Ta rääkis mulle, et haigus tuli määrdunud WC -istmetelt. Samuti polnud õnnetu tänaval nunnast mööduda. Ta ütles, et nunnad olid pettunud naised ja te pidite sülitama, et mitte nende pettumust tabada. Kui sain oma esimese lapse, ütles ema mööduvale sõbrale, kes oli lapsele komplimente teinud: "Ei, ei, ta on kole." Lilith, selgitas ta mulle, võib kadedaks saada ja lapsele haiget teha. Nii et Chelmi maailm oli meiega meie New Yorgi kodus ja tundub usutav, aitäh Irving Howe, et ilmaliku kultuuri osaks saanud juudid võiksid nalja teha nende juutide üle, kes olid Voltaire'i universumiga liitumisel aeglasemad. ning Newton ja Darwin.

Muidugi, juudid ei ole kohordina rumalad ja me oleme uhked oma majandusliku nutikuse, koolitarkuse, teadlaste ja kirjanike ning kõigi filmide, teatri ja ajalehtede maailma panuse üle jne. varjata meie edu nendes lugudes? "Oh ei, juudid on täpselt nagu kõik teised: unustage meie vastuvõtt kolledžisse või tõus aktsiaturul, me oleme lihtsalt vaesed inimesed nagu need, kes elavad Chelmis." Tegelikult oleme üsna uhked oma aju üle, mis on viinud meid läbi paljude raskete sajandite. Kui me naerame tšelmiitide üle, võib -olla me naerame, sest oleme nii targad, et võime teeselda, et oleme rumalad. See võib meie vastu teatud viha kõrvale juhtida.

Kuulsin aastaid tagasi Isaac Bashevis Singerit New Yorgi ülikoolis suure publikuga rääkimas. Ta oli vana põnn, sõbralik ja võluv. Ta nimetas Jumalat kui suurt romaanikirjutajat taevas. Muidugi ei laseks ükski romaanikirjanik oma tegelastel, nii paljudel neist, kannatada, nagu juudid olid hiljuti kannatanud Ida -Euroopa laagrites. Kes seda lugu usuks? Novellistid kirjutavad ilukirjandust. Kui vaid Jumal oleks ilukirjanik!


Singer õmblusmasinate ettevõte

TÄHELEPANU. Praegu ei võta me vastu Singer Sewing Machine Company õmblusmasinaid, -seadmeid ega -vihikuid.

Asukoht: 415 E. Madison St., siis 2015 Western Ave., South Bend

Isaac M. Singer asutas oma lauljafirma 1851. aastal Bostonis. Aastal 1853 kolis ta oma tegevuse New Yorki. 1858. aastal rajati New Yorgi tehased Mott, Spring, Delancy ja Broome Streeti ümbritsetud piirkonda. Aastal 1872 viidi peamised tehased New Jersey osariiki Elizabethisse.

Umbes 1864. aastal oli ettevõtte Singer lääne agentidel probleeme Chicago turustajalt masinate hankimisega. South Bendi agent Fred Grettner ja Chicago agent arvasid, et nad võiksid saada kohalikud mööblivabrikud pakkuma kapi ehitust (kuna õmblusmasinad olid paigaldatud puidust korpuses, millel oli jalgpedaal). Ilmselt sel ajal ei ehitanud Singeri õmblusmasinate kappe Singer, vaid leping teiste tootjatega. Grettner pöördus mitme South Bendi mööblitootja poole, näiteks: B.F. Price, Smith & amp; Rilling ja Montgomery, pakkumiste tegemiseks 5000 kuni 10 000 kapi kohta kuus. See hõlmaks laudu, karbikatteid ja sahtleid. Kõik pöördujad keeldusid Grettnerilt pakkumist tegemast, andes mõista, et nad ei taha nii väikest tööd.

Kuna South Bend oli musta pähkli tootmise keskus, oli see suurepärane koht mööbli valmistamiseks. 1868. aastal tuli New Yorgi Singeri kontorist Leighton Pine, et rajada South Bendi piirkonda Singeri kappivabrik. Ta valis saidile East Race, mis kuulub proua Sherlandile ja mis osteti 2500 dollari eest. Mishawaka linn, kes soovis oma linnale tehast hankida, pakkus Pine'ile ja teistele Singeri ametnikele, kes olid tulnud South Bendi ala kontrollima, paremat veevarustust, tehaseplatsi ja veel 20 aakrit tasuta. Ametnikud otsustasid pakkumise vastu võtta ja suunasid Grettneri isegi oma jaotuskeskuse Mishawakasse kolima. Grettner otsustas koguda raha, et maksta proua Sherlandile South Bendi saidi eest South Bendi kodanike tellimusel, ja veenis East Race'i veejõu omanikke Miller & amp; Greene'i Singerile tasuta elektrit pakkuma. See pakkumine saadeti New Yorki naasnud ametnikele ja see võeti vastu. Grettner ei olnud isegi kogunud kõiki oma tellimuse vahendeid, millest mõned olid saadaval 0,25 dollari suuruse pantina. Lõpuks koguti kõik raha ja Singer tuli South Bendi.

Leighton Pine, kes asutas South Bendi Singeri kabinetitööd, sündis 1844. aastal New Yorgis. Kodusõja ajal oli ta fotograaf. 1860ndate keskel asus ta tööle Singeri kabinetitöötajana. 1868 rajas ta South Bendi tehase ja juhendas selle ehitamist. Pärast tehase ehitamist tegi ta suurema osa kontoritöödest ise. Esimesel aastal South Bendis töötas tehases 168 meest ja teenis 10 000 dollari väärtuses kappe.

Aastal 1875 lahkus Pine Singerist ja temast sai South Bendi rauatehase peadirektor. Novembris 1879 naasis ta Singeri juurde ja jäi sellesse ettevõttesse kuni oma surmani 1905. aastal. Singeri õmblusmasinaettevõttes töötades oli Pine seotud vähemalt kahe teise South Bendi äriettevõttega - Economist Plough Company ja Spring Curry Kammide ettevõte. Lõpuks sai Pine'ist kõigi Singeri kabinetitehaste peadirektor Kairos, IL Kilbourne'is, Šotimaal Wittenbergis, Saksamaal Floridsdorfis ning Venemaal Podolskis ja Moskvas. He continued to live in South Bend, but died in 1905 while on a business trip to Scotland.

Leighton Pine took and active role in community affairs. One unsuccessful venture was to establish the Cushman Telephone Company to compete against Bell Telephone Company.

Pine was successful in his campaign to establish a standpipe water storage system, over the Holly system favored by John M. Studebaker. This issue was one of the most hotly contested issues of the 1872 mayoral race. The standpipe advocates won the election and the standpipe was constructed. On Christmas Day 1873, a wager was set up between Pine and Studebaker. Pine bet Studebaker that he could drive Studebaker from the belfry on the Studebaker factory office (approximately 6 stories off the ground) with water from a hydrant near the factory (water pressure being supplied by the newly installed standpipe), while several other hydrants in the area were opened. This would finally prove that the standpipe system produced enough pressure to effectively pump water, which the Holly system advocates did not believe. Pine turned on the water and immediately drove J.M. Studebaker and his friends from the belfry. The prize brought forth in the bet was a cow which was turned over to the Ladies Benevolent Aid Society for benefit of the poor.

By 1891, Singer Sewing Machine Company in South Bend had 898 employees and by 1900 it was clear that these facilities along the East Race had been outgrown. At this time, some officials of Singer advocated moving the cabinet works to Cairo, IL, but Leighton Pine persuaded them to keep the works in South Bend and to move the factory. Pine acquired the site on the west side of South Bend along Division Street (now Western Avenue). This site was very close to the Economist Plow Works, which Pine had had an interest in, and the Economist factory was eventually incorporated into the Singer factory as a foundry, which was needed to cast and japan (a type of iron treatment) the stands and treadles.

The Division Street plant was supposed to be the largest sewing machine cabinet factory in the world when it was built, although it was later exceeded by the works in Scotland. The new South Bend plant covered about 60 acres, including 20 acres of lumber yards. There was an in-factory railroad with about five miles of track. The factory adjoined the Lake Shore & Michigan Railroad. At the time of construction it was thought the capacity of the factory was 7,000 sets per day and had 3,000 employees. All operations were performed in the South Bend plant, including drying of lumber, cutting, veneering, and assembling of cabinets. According to an article in the newspaper at the time the new plant was built, this plant was being duplicated in Moscow.

With the new plant Singer was able to greatly expand operations in South Bend. The South Bend plant was already a distribution center and this function grew. By 1907, 10,000 sewing machine cabinet sets were manufactured per day. Only part of these were completely finished, many sets were shipped to Scotland &ldquoin part white,&rdquo that is, unfinished and unassembled. Of the finished sets, half were sent to Elizabeth, New Jersey to have the machines installed and be shipped to the U.S. seaboard, South America, and Asia. Machines were sent from Elizabeth to be installed at South Bend and the completed sewing machine distributed from here. The cabinet work was done on very close tolerances in order to make parts interchangeable, no matter where they were shipped.

The year of 1914 was the peak year for production in South Bend. At that time there were about 3,000 employees working in the Division Street plant. In the early years of the 20 th century, about 50 million feet of hardwood lumber for cabinets, 20 million feet of softwood lumber for packing boxes, and 10 million feet of walnut, oak, gum for veneer were used in the South Bend plant per year. This was all stockpiled in the huge 20 acre lumber yards adjoining the factory. David Pollack, a Singer researcher, estimated that three-quarters of all sewing machine cases and cabinets in the world at that time were made in South Bend, with a year output of 2,000,000 cabinets.

After 1914 changes occurred which affected the operation in South Bend. The plants in Germany became self-sustaining and Scotland was getting close to self-sustaining. They could buy European lumber at a better price than the cost of shipping it from the United States. Of course, the plants in Russia were lost as a result of the Russian Revolution. These plants had received many cabinets from the U.S. Within the U.S., it became more economical to dry and rough cut lumber at the Singer plant near Trumann, Arkansas, which was closer to a lumber supply and to apply veneer at the plant in Cairo, IL. All of these developments cut into the work done at South Bend. Stockpiling of lumber ceased in 1933 and the lumber yard employment reduced to zero from a 1913 high of 224 workers. The foundry operation could be more effectively handed in Elizabeth, NJ since the electric machine did not need cast treadles and stands any longer. The foundry buildings (which use to belong to the Economist Plow Company) were sold in 1937.

The Depression years were not good for Singer in South Bend (nor anywhere). In 1932 there were 650 employees, and most of these employees worked a 16 hour a week schedule. There was some growth after this, but it seems that throughout the 1930s there were only around 800 or 900 employees. They were mostly on a 40 hour work week in the later years. In 1938 the factory was unionized and Local 917 of the United Electrical Radio & Machine workers were established. By the beginning of World War II there were 1,200 employees.

There seems to have been only two strikes at the Singer factory. The first one was in 1902 where there was a controversy over who should name the assistant plant manager. In 1939, the newly unionized employees started a strike at the plant over the hiring practices by the company. The employees wanted laid off workers hired back into new positions rather than new people. This strike started on April 11, 1939, because a 19 year old girl with no previous experience had been hired. The strike continued until May when the workers returned to work, the girl was re-hired and the strike was resumed after one day of working. The strike was finally called off July 23, 1939. This time the controversial girl was not re-hired, but apparently none of the other issues were resolved. At this time the 800 production workers were working a 3-day work week.

The Singer company in South Bend had problems with conversion to wartime production during World War II sincere there was not a great demand for wood products for defense. The main products from the plant were wooden packing crates for guns and other material and plywood sub-assemblies for planes and gliders. Such products as gun stocks and wooden propellers were rejected as inappropriate. There were fewer workers at the South Bend plant than before the war and those that were employed were not using the peak of their skills.

In July 1945 Singer was given permission to return to domestic production on a limited basis. There were 500 employees left at the plant because of the lack of war work available and suitable for the cabinet works. Management expected this number to rise to about 1,300 with the resumption of civilian work. The main problem in conversion back to civilian production was the lack of raw material available to the South Bend plant.

After World War II, it seems that things never really got back to normal at the South Bend plant. A strike at the New Jersey plant in 1949 cut off the supply of sewing machine heads and so reduced the need for cabinets made in South Bend. Many workers were laid off. In April 1954 the closing of the South Bend plant was announced. The reason given was to consolidate the cabinet work at plants nearer to the lumber supply. This had, of course, been under way since 1914. The 90-day shutdown process began in January 1955.

Today there is only one building remaining on the Western Avenue Singer plant. It is currently known as the Mary Crest Building.


The 1960s


Raymond Albert Kroc is my personal franchise hero. If it wasn’t for Ray Kroc, franchising may not have become what it is today. And McDonald’s restaurants, which have been dotting the landscape near exit ramps of every major freeway since the 1960s, wouldn’t be in existence.

Born in 1902, Ray Kroc was a sales guy with an incredible vision. He started out selling milkshake-mixing equipment. He believed in the product (the Multi-Mixer) so much, he mortgaged his home to become a distributor of this machine which could make five milkshakes at the same time. Kroc traveled all over the country selling Multi-Mixers to people in the food industry.

During his travels, Kroc had heard about two brothers from California named Dick and Mac McDonald. They owned a busy hamburger stand and were using eight of Kroc’s milkshake-mixing machines—simultaneously. He decided to take a drive out to California to see how they did it. What he observed there was an assembly line-like system. The McDonald brothers appeared to have this procedure of theirs down to a science, and Kroc was impressed.

Kroc had quite an epiphany after seeing the McDonald brothers’ restaurant. He envisioned restaurants like theirs opening and operating all over the country. Coincidentally, the McDonald brothers happened to be looking for a “franchising agent” to sell franchises across the country—and as someone who’d been a salesman for the past 30 years, Ray Kroc was the right guy for the job.

Kroc cemented a deal to be the McDonald brothers’ exclusive agent and started selling franchises. At the same time, he also opened the first duplicate of the McDonald brothers’ California restaurant in Des Plains, Illinois. Ray saw something big in the making and tried to convince the brothers that they should start thinking bigger also. A few years later, the three owned multiple restaurants. However, Kroc was the one that wanted to build the eateries into a true “empire”. He recognized that it was the perfect time to introduce a chain restaurant like theirs, as automobile travel was becoming increasingly popular and freeways were beginning to appear in more and more places.

Kroc ended up buying out the McDonald brothers for $2.7 million after learning that they weren’t as motivated as he was in building a restaurant empire.

By 1963, McDonald’s had 500 restaurants up and running. Today, there are approximately 34,000 McDonald’s restaurants open. 80 percent of them are franchises. 1.8 million people are employed by McDonald’s in 118 different countries. I’d say that Kroc succeeded in building an empire.


What is the history of the Singer Sewing Machine Company

Issac Merritt Singer was born in Schaghiticoke, New York.

Orson C. Phelps of Boston was manufacturing sewing machines under license from John A. Lerow. The Lerow and Blodgett machine was not very practical. The circular movement of the shuttle took a twist out of the thread at every revolution.

Isaac Merritt Singer, after examining the machine, noted "instead of the shuttle going around in a circle, I would have it move to and fro in a straight line. In place of the needle bar pushing a curved needle horizontally, I would have a straight needle and make it work up and down."

After 11 days and $40 in cost, Singer completed his invention: the world's first practical sewing machine. This machine had a straight eye-pointed needle and transverse shuttle, an overhanging arm, a table to support the cloth, a presser foot to hold the material against the upward stroke of the needle, and a roughened feed wheel extending through a slot in the table. Motion was communicated to the needle arm and shuttle by means of gears.

Singer also conceived the idea of using a treadle similar to that of a spinning wheel all other machines at the time used a hand crank to generate power.

Isaac Merritt Singer formed I.M. Singer & Company with New York lawyer Edward C. Clark, following Singer's first lockstitch sewing machine patent. The Singer Sewing Machine was for sale all over the United States. Within two years Singer was the leading manufacturer and marketer of sewing machines in the United States.

Singer patented a tension device.

I. M. Singer & Co. set up corporate offices and a manufacturing facility in New York City. Company is renamed "Singer Manufacturing Company".

The first Singer sewing machines, manufactured in New York, sell for $100 each.

Singer became the world's largest sewing company. Singer beganoverseas expansion, starting in Paris, France, making Singer the world’s first international company.

A Singer sewing machine was awarded a first prize at the World's Fair in Paris.

Edward Clark originated the hire-purchase plan, the prototype for all installment selling or time payment purchases. As a result, individuals with even meager income could own a Singer sewing machine. Even better, they could increase their productivity, earn more money and improve their position in life.

The "Turtleback" sewing machine was introduced.

Singer patented a ruffler, tucker and binder.

Branch office opened in Glasgow, Scotland.

First Singer showroom and headquarters located at 458 Broadway, New York City.

The first lightweight domestic machine, the "Grasshopper," was introduced.

Unit sales topped 3,000 a year.

Singer opened three manufacturing plants in New York City.

Singer opens an operation in Brazil.

Singer received first of three patents for lock-stitch vibrating shuttle machines.

Foreign sales exceed U.S. sales for the first time.

The company was incorporated as the Singer Manufacturing Company, holding 22 patents and with capital assets of $550,000. Some 20,000 home sewing machines were being sold annually.

Branch office opened in Hamburg, Germany.

The "New Family" sewing machine introduced.

Singer patented an oscillating shuttle sewing machine.

Singer opened it's first factory outside of the United States in Glasgow, Scotland.

Cabinet factory opened in South Bend, Indiana.

The Singer Company sells 170,000 machines.

The Singer Manufacturing Company opened sales and distribution centers in England.

The Singer Red “S” girl trademark made her debut. Her trademark is produced in several languages, becoming one of the most recognized trademarks in the world.

Red "S" girl trademark made her debut-destined to become one of the best known emblems in the world.

Singer's Bridgton factory became the largest in Britain.

Unit sales reached 180,000 a year.

Elizabethport, New Jersey became the site of a large, state-of-the-art manufacturing facility.

With the official opening of the factory in Elizabethport, the Singer Manufacturing Company became a New Jersey Corporation under a special charter.

Canadian manufacturing began.

I.M. Singer dies in Torquay, England at age 63.

An Edison electric motor drives a sewing machine.

Singer sewing machine sales worldwide exceed 500,000 machines. Additional factories are established in the United States.

Factory opened in Cairo, Illinois.

Factories opened in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and Floridsdorf, Austria.

To meet growing demand in Europe, Singer opened the largest sewing machine factory in the world in Kilbowie, Scotland. The factory at one point employed 12,000 workers and it's most distinctive feature was the second largest clock tower in the world at almost 200 feet high.

The Statue of Liberty is believed to be in Isabella Singer's likeness, was given to the U.S.

Singer introduced the first practical electric sewing machine.

Singer claimed 80% worldwide market share in sewing machines.

First use of electric motor to power a commercial machines.

Singer developed a commercial zigzag machine.

Singer Company produced 40 different sewing machine models.

The "Singer 66" was introduced.

Kilbowie, Scotland factory renamed Clydebank.

Factory opened in Podolsk, Russia.

Annual sales reach 1.35 million machines worldwide.

New factories opened in Wittenberge, Prussia and St. John's, Quebec, Canada.

Russian corporate headquarters opened. It was Russia's first steel girder structure.

The Singer Sewing Machine Company became the sales and distribution division of Singer Manufacturing Company.

Singer acquired "Wheeler and Wilson Manufacturing Company".

Factory opened in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

The Singer Building at 149 Broadway in New York City opens. At the time of it's completion, it was the first skyscraper and the tallest building in the world, standing at 47 stories, 612 feet tall. It was headquarters for the Executive Office for 54 years.

Singer sales reached 3 million machines worldwide.

Singer introduced the "Portable Electric," an electric-motor powered model 99K.

First Singer Sewing Center to offer sewing courses, was introduced to New York City.

Nine worldwide Singer manufacturing facilities exist, employing 27,000 people and producing 3,000 models.

Singer purchased the Standard Sewing Machine Company.

First vacuum cleaner introduced, launching Singer’s strategy of diversification beyond sewing machines.

Singer introduced its "Featherweight" at the Chicago's World Fair.

Factories opened in Monsa, Italy and Bounieres, France.

Singer developed "Model 95K", capable of 4,000 stitches per minute.

Plant opened in Anderson, South Carolina.

The Singer Sewing Center trained an estimated 400,000 housewives.

Singer recovered from World War II when sewing machine production was suspended, reaching $307.8 million in sales during it's centennial year.

New factory in Campinas, Brazil opened.

Annual sales reached $359 million.

Annual sales reached $507 million.

Singer began diversification. In the following years, the company will make acquisitions in electric, electric test equipment and office machinery, including Packard Bell Electronics (1966) and General Precision Equipment Corporation (1968).

Executive Office moved to 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City.

The Singer Manufacturing Company changed it's name to "The Singer Company."

Singer introduces the "Touch and Sew" sewing machines.

Consolidated sales reached $979.8 million.

Consolidated sales reached the billion-dollar mark for the first time.

Sales first topped $2 billion.

Consolidated sales were $2.1 billion shareholders numbered over 60,000. Singer employed nearly 120,000 people worldwide.

Company stock was listed on the London Stock Exchange.

Annual Sales reached $2.5 billion.

Singer introduces the world's first electronic sewing machine, the Athena 2000.

Singer introduced the Touchtronic 2001, the world's first computer-controlled machine.

Singer Headquarters are relocated to a new facility in Stamford, Connecticut.

Singer introduced an entire new line of state-of the-art sewing machines with models designed to meet individual needs and budgets. These machines were built with "Duratec," a unique material which is stronger and lighter than aluminum yet provides double insulation.

These easy to use sewing machines ranged from basic to the most sophisticated sewing machines and included a top-of-the-line electronic sewing machine which had the capacity to produce an unlimited number of stitch patterns, monograms, embroidery, and even sews sideways.

Singer introduced the 9900 Unlimited with the largest microprocessor ever incorporated in a sewing machine.

Singer introduced the 9900 Unlimited which contained the largest microprocessor ever incorporated in sewing machines. The model 9900 had many easy-to-use, time-saving features including a LED message center offering practical advice to the sewer.

Singer introduced the QUANTUM® line, a new series of sewing machines specifically for the professional and avid sewer who demands performance, ease-of-use and state of the art features.

Singer introduced the Magic Steam Ironing Press™, an at-home version of presses found in most tailor shops and dry cleaning stores.

The Quantumlock 4 and Quantumlock 5 overlocks offered exceptional performance with the most stitches available on any overlocker.

The Magic Steam Ironing Press was introduced, an at-home version of presses found in most tailor shops and dry cleaning stores. The Magic Steam Press cut ironing time in half and included a variable temperature control and automatic shut-off safety feature, plus burst of steam for stubborn wrinkles.

Singer celebrated 140 years of innovation.

In August, the company went public with an initial public offering of 16,239,300 shares.

Singer introduced the QUANTUM® XL-100, its top-of-the-line embroidery sewing machine.

Singer introduced the Elegance line of sewing machines and the Embroidery Unlimited Machine. The new Embroidery Unlimited machine brought professional embroidery and monogramming to your personal computer.

Singer introduced the Millennium Series sewing machines.

Singer introduced the QUANTUM® XL-1000, the most advanced machine in the market offering a wide variety of memory cards for serious embroiderers.

Singer Sewing Company's consumer products division relocated to Tennessee.

Singer celebrated its 150th Anniversary.

Singer again launched the world's most advanced home sewing and embroidery machine: the QUANTUM® XL-5000. The machine offers state of the art features such as a fully automated re-threading system, wind-in-place bobbin winding system, and the next generation of Professional Sew-Ware™, making it the most powerful and user-friendly system on the market.

Singer new entry into mass selling of computerised embroidery machines including digitizing software.

Now other manufacture has captured the low cost embroidery machine market like Singer had with the introduction of the Singer CE Futura range. As well as being a great sewing machine for every day sewing, the Singer CE Futura is also a full power embroidery machine when you link it to your own PC all software and cables were included.

Singer brand in now in the hands of VSM then later transferred to SVP WORLDWIDE who now distribute Singer, Pfaff and Viking sewing machines.


Singer, Isaac - History

For antique and vintage sewing machines

Singer Sewing Machines
Through the ages
185 1 -19 51

Alex has spent a lifetime in the sewing industry and is considered one of the foremost experts of pioneering machines and their inventors. He has written extensively for trade magazines, radio, television, books and publications world wide.

Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age. The story of Isaac Merritt Singer will blow your mind, his wives and lovers his castles and palaces all built on the back of one of the greatest inventions of the 19th century. For the first time the most complete story of a forgotten giant is brought to you by Alex Askaroff.


The 1951 Singer Centenary Badge if you have a Singer check for this it doubles the value!

In 1951 Singer's celebrated 100 years in the sewing business by producing a special badge. For 12 months they put it on all their singer sewing machines. It is unique and I thought it may be a good idea to give you a potted history of Singer's most popular models for the first 100 years. It will help many schools and people who just want a brief history of the manufacturing giant . However if you would like to read about the amazing man himself.

In Singer's heyday there was hardly a place on earth that did not sell or make Singer machines. the name Singer was the best known name on the entire planet and even today his name is synonymous with the sewing machine.


Singer Salesmen were well trained in the art of selling their product and the first official part-payment scheme in history really helped.

Now , if you want to read all about the amazing life of Isaac Singer then pop over to my Singer page and have a real treat.

For the first century Singer machines developed at a slow almost predictable pace and one model followed another starting from Singers patent model of 1851. As one model became obsolete it would be replaced. Singer's models went in numbers so a model 12 was followed by a 13 and so on.

In the first 100 years there were only around 200 different models but from the 1950's to the Naughties there were thousands!

From the 1950's, due to a massive leap in technology, brought on by the Second World War, and world trade markets opening like never before, Singer models went ballistic. It was hard to keep up with the changes.

Therefore I am going to concentrate on Singer's first best-sellers. We are going to miss out quite a few industrial, poor sellers, prototypes and less well know models and give you a potted history of there best and biggest.

Now all owners of the superb Singer 221's & 222's don't get in a huff although they were around from the 1930's they really did not come into there own until after my century.

So here we go let's have some fun.

1851 Isaac Singer's first patent model sewing machine

Rumour persists that this was one of Singer's many mistresses.


People often say that this was one of Singer ' s mistresses with his first machine

Although Singer's first machine was heavy, slow and tricky to operate it was truly the first proper sewing machine in the world capable of continuous and reliable sewing. Treadle stands were unknown in the 1850's and although Singer had invented this portable treadle-come packing case he missed his opportunity to patent it, silly boy. They say it was this model that freed womankind from much of the daily drudgery of sewing.

1856 Singers Turtle-Back lightweight sewing machine not a good sewer.


The first machine on an iron treadle Isaac's Turtle-Back was a mini failure and desperately rare today.

Isaac's first machine was big and heavy. He quickly got to work on a lightweight machine that proved a disaster and was driven by a flat leather belt that was always slipping. Singer needed a really good machine to stay ahead of his competitors so he went back to his original design and just made it a little lighter.

1859 The Singer model A sewing machine


Singer was still using pretty models and now his stylish machines were reflecting this

The Singer Model A put Isaac back in the lead as the best machine on the market. Bevel gears and a good working space were big advantages for the machinist. However early cast bevel gears were prone to wear and so problems were on the horizon. Also the machine was still way too big and bulky. Isaac got to work on his next machine and the one that would make him a millionaire and eventually one of the richest men in the world.

1865 Singer's New Family Machine or fiddlebase


The New Family machine of 1865 set the trend of machines for decades

Singers New Family machine of 1865 was a revelation. Small, pretty and super efficient. It used a transverse shuttle to make an excellent stitch on just about any fabric. Also it would sew with almost any thread and used a round leather non-slip belt. All his innovations left the competitors standing. Singer went on to decorate his best seller in many different forms some really lavish and quite beautiful. The New Family machine also became known as the Fiddlebase due to the fiddle-shape of the bed.

1870 Singer's Medium Model Machine model 13


A little larger than the earlier New Family model but it was also heavier and not so popular

!870 saw Singer's introduction of his larger Medium Model. It never really caught on due to its weight but nonetheless many still survive. There was no doubting the quality of the model. It was popular with people who handled heavier work due to the extra room under the arm of the machine. Note: Singer's were still not advertising the company name on the treadle.

1879 Singer's Improved Family model 15k


Singer never saw the launch of the famous model 15 , the best selling machine ever made and still produced today in India.

Poor old Isaac had popped his clogs in 1874 so he did not live to see the launch of his finest model. The model 15 was the longest manufactured machine in history and is still made in some Indian & Chinese provinces today. The model 15 was just about perfect. It would sew anything from silk to canvas without complaining. It was the dawn of a new era in sewing machines. It's round bobbin and oscillating shuttle mechanism allowed it to work faster and quieter than ever. Also this was Singer's first model where they had eliminated all gears using crankshaft and con rod mechanisms long before cars. the needles used on this model are the same as we use today, like the shark the needle had evolved to perfection.

1885 Singer's 27&28 sewing machine models


Singers 27&28 were so popular people still use them today

1885 saw Singer's launch two super little machines. designed purely for the home use and the average family. Both models utilised a vibrating shuttle that became fondly called the boat või bullet shuttle. The 27 & 28 lasted for decades with minor changes eventually becoming the 127&128 models.

1908 Singer's super 66 model


The 66 was simply the best machine the world had seen in 1908

When Singers brought out the model 66 it established them once again as the best in the business. A few years earlier they had bought and closed down the massive Wheeler & Wilson Company who had a very successful high-arm model (No9). Singer's ability to use this knowledge proved brilliant. The 66 went on to become a favourite amongst many sewers of the day. Some were elaborately decorated with Egyptian designs which were popular at the time culminating some years later in 1924 with Howard Carter's amazing discovery of Tutankhamen. The 66 had a fully enclosed needlebar, round bobbin and a horizontal oscillating hook. Many modern machines still follow this principle. It was a new machine for a new century.

1911 Singer's model 99


How do you go one better than the 66 ? A smaller prettier version-the 99

The model 99 was almost perfection in a sewing machine. Small pretty and able to sew just about anything that you could squeeze under the foot. the 99 was just a smaller version of Singer's best-selling 66. I still believe that no machine made could improve on the stitch quality of the little 99. Anyone who cold afford this little beauty bought one, even if it was on the never-never over many years.

1921Singer's model 99 now with electricity


A singer bolt-on motor and light in 1921 cost a months wages!

The 1914-19 war stopped all sewing machine evolution as the great sewing machine factories around the world helped the war effort. Many of the factories geared up and made armaments for both sides including Singer's in Killbowie, Scotland where they made machine guns and 20 million bullets a week!

After the Great War, advances in technology made it possible to offer Singer's models as either hand, treadle or electric. The electric motors cost 5 in 1921. The average wage was still under a-pound-a-week so a motor would have been over a months wages! Oh, and now you can see what you are sewing without candlelight with a super bolt-on electric light.

1934 Singer's improved model 15


The model 15 was hard to beat for decades one problem, it weighed a ton but now had reverse !

Notice how the lovely early cast-iron treadles have slowly given way, firstly to elegant wooden then chunky 30's style boxes, such a shame. The model 15 was hard to beat so they simply improved it making it even smoother and quieter eventually adding a reverse in the 1950's. what luxury!


The Singer 201 is still considered Singers finest full-sized machine

Singer's 201k was undoubtedly the pinnacle of Singer's quality machines. The 201 had arrived on the scene after nearly a century of evolution. It had the very best features of all Singer's models and a price-tag to match. It was their most expensive machine. There has never been a better Singer or perhaps a better sewing machine ever made than the 201k. She now has her own page, singer 201 sewing machine.

The 201has gone down in history as Singer's finest model. Although technology has moved on, quality has not. The model 201 simply represents the very best that Singer's could make and was built to last a lifetime. Even today many professional sewers seek out this elusive model as no new machine can come close to this beauty for reliability and stitch quality.

I remember a story about a woman walking into a shop in post war Britain. "I would like a Singer." The Singer man just shrugged and said "Wouldn't we all madam, wouldn't we all." In reality times were so hard and material so scarce that they would be put on a waiting list and be notified when one was ready. Some people would wait months for a new machine. A little bit different to today eh!

Well that's it folks a brief introduction to the first century of Singer's.

After the model 201 things went bananas with hundreds then thousands of new models coming from factories all over the globe.

Now you can buy a sewing machine that almost makes the tea for you and will do a multitude of stitches, walk the dog and bath the kids. It is a different world but one where sadly quality often gets left behind.

Well I hope you enjoyed our little trip down Singer's memory lane. If you would like to learn a little about the giant who caused all this read on.

Most of us know the name Singer but few are aware of his amazing life story, his rags to riches journey from a little runaway to one of the richest men of his age. The story of Isaac Merritt Singer will blow your mind, his wives and lovers his castles and palaces all built on the back of one of the greatest inventions of the 19th century. For the first time the most complete story of a forgotten giant is brought to you by Alex Askaroff.

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The way it's written you can just imagine walking beside him seeing the things he does.
Definitely look forward to reading more of his adventures.
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Hello Alex,
Such a pleasure reading your pages on Singer's most popular models for the first 100 years. Thank you so much for you research and for sharing it with everybody. I'll be coming back soon to learn more.
Warm regards from France
Yaritza Bianchi


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