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Hiline tootmine Supermarine Spitfire IX

Hiline tootmine Supermarine Spitfire IX


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Hiline tootmine Supermarine Spitfire IX

Pilt hilisest lavastusest Spitfire Mk IX. Iseloomulikud omadused hõlmavad mullide varikatust, nelja labaga tiivikut ja kärbitud tiibu.


“E ” sorteerimine

Masstoodanguna toodetud Spitfire Mk. XVIE sisaldas kahte olulist Ameerika päritolu eset – Packardi toodetud Merlin 266 mootorit ja .50 ″ kaliibriga Browningi tiiva relvastust. 1944. aasta alguseks said mõlemad USA -s suurtes kogustes kättesaadavaks üha usaldusväärsemate Atlandi laevateede kaudu. Nende kaasamine kõige arvukama Briti hävitaja tootmisse oli selle tarneolukorra loogiline tagajärg.

Browning .50 ″ kaliibriga kuulipildujal oli pikk ajalugu. Isegi täna on see üks edukamaid kuulipildujaid, mida kunagi toodetud. Ameerika Ühendriigid kasutasid seda laialdaselt sõidukite relvana ja lennukite relvastamiseks alates 1920. aastatest kuni Teise maailmasõja lõpuni Koreasse ja Vietnami. Üllataval kombel on see tänapäevalgi kasutusel USA sõjaväe ja NATO riikide esmase raskekuulipildujana, kusjuures vaid mõned kaasaegsed täiustused eristavad seda teise maailmasõja ajastu eelkäijast.

Põhilist M2 kasutati USA -s mitmel variandil. Fikseeritud või painduva lennukipüstolina kasutamiseks mõeldud variandi täielik nimetus oli Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, Cal. .50, AN/M2 (fikseeritud) või (paindlik).

AN/M2 (fikseeritud) tsükliline kiirus oli 750–850 lasku minutis ja seda oli võimalik vallandada elektriliselt juhitava kaugjuhtimisega solenoidi päästiku abil. Lennukite ’-de libisemise tõttu jahtununa võis õhkjahutusega AN/M2 varustada armee vastasega võrreldes oluliselt kergema tünniga, mis suurendas ka tulekahju.

Tuleb märkida, et võrreldes teiste tolleaegsete õhusõidukite relvadega oli Browningi jõudlus üsna eristamatu, eriti võrreldes teiste võitlevate riikide laialdaselt kasutatavate lennukikahuritega. Ka Ameerika relv oli väga raske. Teisest küljest oli USAAF pidanud seda õhk-õhk lahingus äärmiselt usaldusväärseks ja lihtsalt “ piisavalt heaks ”. Nii sai Browningist standardne relvastus Ameerika hävitajatel ja P-51 Mustangil, P-47 Thunderboltil või F6F Hellcatil ja mujal, samasuguse korraldusega säilitati isegi sõjajärgsetel aastatel ka F-86 Sabre.

Kui Spitfire'i puhul kaaluti sama relva, oli Supermarine'il vähemalt kaks ilmset valikut, mis mõlemad sobiksid tihedalt C-tiiva universaalsesse struktuuri.

  • Neli .50 ″ Browningi paigutamist C-tiiva kahuriruumidesse, eemaldades samal ajal välimise ja#8220.303 Brownings. See annaks Spitfire'ile täienduse neljast, 50-kaliibrilisest püstolist, sarnaselt P-51B Mustangiga.
  • .50 ″ pruunistamine iga tiiva kasutamata kahuripesasse ning eemaldage välimine ja#8220.303 relv. See annaks Spitfire'ile täienduse kahest 20 mm Hispanost ja kahest .50 ” kuulipildujast.

Nagu teada, sai viimane kombinatsioon 1944. aasta lõpus ja 1945. aastal Merlini jõul töötavatel Spitfire'idel laialt levinud standardiks. Peamine põhjus on ilmselt seetõttu, et RAF-i doktriin pidas kahurit oma suurepärase löögijõuga hävitava relvastuse vajalikuks koostisosaks. nii õhus kui ka maapealsete sihtmärkide vastu (võrreldes Spitfire Mk. IXC-ga oli P-51B kergelt relvastatud, tõepoolest päästis selle maine selles piirkonnas ilmselt asjaolu, et tema opositsiooni kuulusid enamasti võitlejad).

Teisest küljest tõi vintpüssi kaliibriga kuulipildujate asendamine raske kuulipildujaga tagasi kuulipildujate tule teatud lahinguefektiivsuse. See oli märkimisväärne mitte ainult maismaa sihtmärkide vastu, mis pidid saama oluliseks 2. taktikaliste õhujõudude operatsioonides pärast sissetungi Euroopasse.

Relvastused kontrollivad töölaual M2 Browningsit

Browningi kaalu tõttu oli uus paigaldus varasemast raskem, suurendades Spitfire relvastuse kaalu 235 -lt 276 kg -le. M2 paigaldamine tiivale osutus suhteliselt lihtsaks modifikatsiooniks ja relv sobis kindlalt ühte C-tüüpi tiiva “universal kahurikambrisse, mille tünn oli tiiva sisse peidetud. kontuur.

Seega oli E -tiib struktuurilt identne C -tüübiga, erinedes ainult relvastuse paigaldamise poolest. Castle Bromwichi tehaserekordid ei näita isegi seda, et “E ” tiib oleks tootmisse jõudnud. Nende tiivad Merlin Spitfire'i jaoks olid kõik sama universaalset tüüpi. Seetõttu on ebaselge, kuidas tähis “E ” tekkis. Võimalik, et see võeti vastu hiljem, kui kasutusele võeti alaselja Mk. XVI viis hapniku- ja suruõhupudelite paigutamiseni tühjadesse .303 ″ pruunistuskambritesse.

Skeem, mis näitab kahurite paigutust ja .5 ″ M2 Browning'i paigaldust Spitfire'is
[Krooni autoriõigus]

Sellel saidil varem avaldatud pildil on näha Spitfire LF Mk relvastuslahe paigutus. IXE, koos Hispano Mk. II kahur vasakule ja M2 Browning paremale. Pange tähele, kuidas kogu laht oli mõeldud kahe hispaanlase mahutamiseks. Browning mahub hõlpsalt oma suuremasse ruumi. Selle laskemoonalaht (ülemine) muudeti algsetest mõõtmetest lihtsalt väiksemaks ja#8221, lisades piki selle esiserva vahetükki.
[Martin Waligorski]

Esimene uue relvastuse saanud Spitfire oli MK197, LF Mk. IX Castle Bromwichi tootmisliinilt. See tarniti AAEE -le Boscombe Downis relvastamiskatseteks 11. veebruaril 1944.

Toodete tarnimine Mk. IXE -d alustasid samal kuul. Arvatakse, et aprilli alguseni valminud esialgne tootmispartii sisaldas 60 masinat, mis läksid numbritele 66 ja 504.

Samaaegselt anti modifitseerimisjuhend olemasolevate kasutusel olevate Spitfires Mk teisendamiseks. IXC uue relvastusega. Seda ei saanud üksuse tasandil teostada, kuna muudatus hõlmas muudatusi tiibades ja torustikus ning#8221 ja#8211 arvatavasti relvade soojendamisel ja suruõhus. Selle asemel andis Vickers Supermarine välja töörühmad lennuki ümberehitamiseks.

M2 Browning oli paigaldatud suurtüki sisemusse, selle tünn oli peidetud täielikult tiiva põhiosasse. Silmapaistev krae ei ole selle paigaldusega seotud, kuid see on omadus, mis on üle võetud tiibalt “C ” – ning pakkus tugevdatud ettepoole kinnitust teisele Hispano kahurile.
[Martin Waligorski]

Ümberarvestustööde tempot on väga raske hinnata. Kuna ümberehitatud õhusõiduki tüübitähistus jäi registrites muutumatuks, on üsna võimatu kindlaks teha, kui palju Spitfiresi D-päevaks konverteeriti. Siiski on selge, et CBAF jätkas LF Mk kasutuselevõttu. IXC lennukid, millel oli samal perioodil relvastus ja#8220 vana ja#8221 relvastus.

Huvitav kurioosum on see, et nr 485 (Uus -Meremaa) malevkond muutis mitmed oma Spitfires LF Mk. IX., Et kanda .50 Browningsit ilma Supermarine'i juhiseid kasutamata.

Esimene Spitfire LF Mk. XVI, MJ556, lendas detsembris 1943 ja kandis “C ” tüüpi relvastust. Eskaadrid hakkasid uut märki saama alles 1944. aasta oktoobri alguses, kui Castle Bromwichi tehases alustati selle variandi masstootmist. Talvel 1944-1945 oli LF Mk. XVIE asendas LF Mk. IX kui mandri 2. TAF -i kõige levinum hävitajatüüp.

Üldiselt arvatakse, et kõik tootmisnäited Mk. XVI kandis relvi “Ameerika ja#8221. Seda on aga raske kindlalt kinnitada. Segadust tekitav nimetus “LF. XVIE ” ilmus esmakordselt CBAF-i kirjetes umbes mais-juunis 1945. Esimene madala seljaosa Mk. XVI, SM410, lahkus 30. märtsil 1945 CBAF-ist uuringuteks, seega on võimalik, et selle kasutuselevõtu ajal oli sufiks “E ” mõeldud viitama alaseljale Spitfire ja/või eelnevalt mainitud muudatustele sellesse varianti lisatud tiibtorustik. Võib -olla me ei tea kunagi.

Ülemine alumine relvastuslaeka kate vahetati ümberehitamise käigus, kuna kahur viidi välimisse lahtrisse ja väljalasketorud olid erinevalt paigutatud.
[Martin Waligorski]


Ettevõtte tegevjuht on asutaja Mike O'Sullivan, kes on ka Cisco munitsipaallennujaama juht. [1] Töökoja juhataja on Chad Faykus ja kontorijuht Kathy Redford-Walton. [2] [3]

Ettevõttes töötas 2012. aastal kaheksa inimest. [1]

Austraalia piloot ja lennundusinsener Mike O'Sullivan, kes kasvas üles Queenslandis loomakasvatusjaamas, oli alati tahtnud Spitfire'i ja 1991. aastal ehitas ta oma tarbeks koopia. Sellele järgnes 1994. aastal täismetallist tootmise prototüüp. [4] [5] [6] [7]

Aastal 1995 liitus O'Sullivan koos äripartneri John McCarroniga, et moodustada Austraalias Brisbane'is ettevõte Supermarine Aircraft, mille idee oli toota kõik Austraalia koduehituslennukite komplektid. Sel juhul saaks konstantse kiirusega nelja labaga propelleri Uus-Meremaa spetsialiseerunud ettevõttelt. [8]

Ettevõttel pole otsest sidet esialgse Briti Supermarine'i ettevõttega, kes ehitas originaalse hävitaja Spitfire, kuid talle on antud luba selle nime kasutamiseks. Ajakirjanik Charles Laurence ajalehest The Telegraph selgitab: "Kuidas sai siis vana Southamptoni lennundusettevõtte Supermarine pühitsetud nimi (pooled Spitfiire'ist ehitati West Bromwichis pärast seda, kui Luftwaffe oli Southamptoni tehased lamestanud)? plekkangaar Texases? O'Sullivan ei ostnud nime Supermarine: talle andsid selle Lääne -Midlandsi vanade lennukitööstuste omanike järeltulijad, kes olid 1950. aastate algusest lõpetanud oma tegevuse. [1]

Umbes 2010. aastal kolis ettevõte USA -s Texase osariigi Cisco lennujaama ja on nüüd Ameerika piiratud vastutusega äriühing. [1] [9]

Nüüd on paljudes riikides lennukid heaks kiidetud ja lendavad ning üle 92 on müüdud. [10]

Supermarine Aircraft Spitfire on ainus Spitfire'i alumiiniumist koopia. Toodetud on kolm mudelit, kõik alamkaardid:


Hiline tootmine Supermarine Spitfire IX - ajalugu

Supermarine Spitfire / Seafire

(Variandid/muud nimed: Vt Ajalugu allpool)


Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX G-CTIX (PT462), nähtud Duxfordis, Suurbritannias 2003.
Foto tegi Rob Boyes.

Ajalugu: Vaieldamatult Teise maailmasõja kuulsaim Briti lahingumasin Spitfire on enamiku brittide kollektiivsesse psüühikasse sama sügavalt juurdunud kui P-51 Mustang enamikus ameeriklastes. Spitfire lendas esmakordselt 5. märtsil 1936. aastal R.J. Mitchell, kes oli varem esitanud ebaõnnestunud kavandi sarnasele hävitajale, tüüp 224. Kui talle anti vabadus projekteerida õhusõidukit väljaspool rangeid õhuministeeriumi spetsifikatsioone, Tüüp 300 oli selge võitja nii palju, et uuele disainile vastavaks kirjutati uus õhuministeeriumi spetsifikatsioon.

The Spitfire Mk I alustas tegevust Cambridgeshire'is Duxfordis 1938. aasta juulis ja aja möödudes pidi Spitfirest saama üks kõige mitmekülgsemaid ja enim modifitseeritud lennukeid, millel olid erinevad tiiva konstruktsioonid, relvastuse muutmine ja mootorimuudatused, mis dikteerisid selle paljusid identiteete .

Teise maailmasõja alguseks septembris 1939 töötas RAF -iga üheksa eskadrilli ja Spitfire täitis kiiresti oma hea maine, lüües järgmisel kuul Ühendkuningriigi kohal alla sakslase He 111. Veel kümme Spitfire'i eskadrilli jõudsid jõusse 1940. aasta sügiseks, kui Suurbritannia lahing pani proovile rahva otsustavuse ja sõjalised ressursid. Varsti alustasid sülitid ülemereoperatsioone Maltal, Lähis -Idas ja Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas.

Spitfire teenis ja ehitati edasi kogu Teise maailmasõja ajal. Seda teeniti paljudes teatrites ja paljude liitlasriikidega, sealhulgas USA -s ja Nõukogude Liidus.

Kuninglik merevägi, märkides nii Spitfire'i edu maapealses teeninduses kui ka nende enda orkaanide edu, käskis toota Seafire, Spitfire'i operaatoripõhine versioon. Tarneid alustati jaanuaris 1942 ja kogu ülejäänud sõja vältel kasutati Seafire'i üha rohkem ja rohkem.

Kuigi see Spitfire/Seafire'i kõige olulisemate variantide loetelu pole kindlasti kõikehõlmav ega põhjalik, annab see aimu õhusõiduki ajaloo keerukusest:

* Mk IB: Neli 7,7 mm (0,303-tollist) relva ja kaks 20 mm suurtükki
* Mk VA/B/C: Võimsam Merlini mootor, varustus tankide või pommide, tiibade ja relvastuse vahetamiseks
* Mk VII: Kõrghaagis survestatud kokpiti ja sissetõmmatava tagarattaga
* Mk VIII: Puhas võitleja, millel puudub rõhk
* Mk IX: Kaheastmeline Merlini mootor, mis on ühendatud Mk V lennukiraamiga
* Mk XIV: Griffon 65/66 mootor viie labaga propelleriga, tugevdatud kere, lai saba, hilisematel mudelitel oli mullivarju
* Mk XVI: Packard Merlini mootor, paljudel oli mullivarju
* Seafire Mk IIC: Katapuldi konksud ja tugevdatud telik, Merlini mootor, 4 labaga propeller
* Seafire Mk III: Topelt kokkuklapitavad tiivad ja 1585 hj Merlin 55 mootor.

Spitfire'i viimane operatsioonimissioon toimus 1. aprillil 1954. aastal, kui Spitfire PR.Mk 19 lendas Malaya kohal fotouurimismissiooniga. Seafire'i viimane missioon oli 1967. aastal, pärast aastaid kestnud ustavat teenistust koos laevastiku õhuväe ja erinevate väljaõppeeskadrillidega.

Spitfire, üks olulisemaid ja auväärsemaid hävituslennukeid, mis kunagi ehitatud, röövib jätkuvalt lõviosa tähelepanu õhusaadetel ja lendudel. Ülejäänud näiteid lennatakse suure hoolega ning jätkuvad Spitfire'i restaureerimised tagavad, et see kaunis lennuk rõõmustab lähitulevikus nii piloote kui ka pealtvaatajaid.

Hüüdnimed: Sülitada Spitter Bomfire (Sülitid, mida kasutatakse hävitajapommitajatena)

Spetsifikatsioonid (Mk VA):
Mootor: üks 1478 hj Rolls-Royce Merlin 45 V-12 kolbmootor
Kaal: tühi 4 998 naela, maksimaalne õhkutõusmine 6417 naela.
Tiivaulatus: 36 jalga. 10in.
Pikkus: 29 jalga. 11in.
Kõrgus: 9 jalga. 11in.
Jõudlus:
Maksimaalne kiirus: 369 km / h
Lagi: 36 500 jalga
Vahemik: 1135 miili
Relvastus: kaheksa 7,7 mm (0,303-tollist) pruunistavat kuulipildujat. (Teistes variantides oli kas kaks suurtükki ja neli kuulipildujat, neli suurtükki või kaks suurtükki, kaks 12,7 mm kuulipildujat ja 1000 naela pomme.)

Ehitatud number: 20 334 Sptifires 2556 Seafires

Number on endiselt lennukõlblik:

[Spitfire'i pilootraport James Feuilherade]


Hiline tootmine Supermarine Spitfire IX - ajalugu

Supermarine Spitfire ja Seafire


Supermarine Spitfire II. Foto viisakalt NASA -lt.

Briti Spitfire on ilmselt tuntuim hävituslennuk, mis kunagi toodetud. Väikesel mitteametlikul küsitlusel leidsin, et isegi inimesed, kes ei tunne huvi lennunduse ega ajaloo vastu, on vähemalt kuulnud Spitfire'ist. Sageli on see ainus hävituslennuk, mille nime nad tunnevad ära.

Pole kahtlustki, et Spitfire oli üks Teise maailmasõja parimaid ja vastupidavamaid võitlejaid. Spitfire osutus sarnaselt oma vaenlasele Bf 109 väga kohanemisvõimeliseks lennukiks ja teenis erinevates versioonides kogu sõja.

Suurem osa Teise maailmasõja kuulsatest Briti ässadest lendas Spitfire'is, sealhulgas Briti sõda kogunud Briti parim äss, kapten "Johnny" Johnson (38 võitu) ning Suurbritannia lahingu jalatu äss ja kangelane Douglas Bader (ta lendas) kahe tehisjalaga), kes lõi oma 20 tapmisest 9 Spitfire kokpitis.

Saksa äss Gunther Rall (275 võitu), kes katsetas lennutatud versioone praktiliselt kõikidest liitlaste tippvõitlejatest, teatas, et eelistab Spitfire'i. See oli levinud meeleolu saksa hävituslendurite seas, kes pidasid Spitfire'i oma kõige ohtlikumaks vaenlaseks.

Spitfire arenes välja 1920. aastate lõpu ja 1930. aastate alguse Schneider Trophy (vesilennukite) võidusõitjate Supermarine liinist, mis kulmineerus 1931. aasta karika võitmisega S.6B. Sama aasta septembris võitis S.6B trofee tipuga kiirus 340,8 miili tunnis ja püstitas maailma kiiruse rekordi 407 miili tunnis

Spitfire prototüüp ehitati 1936. aastal. Nagu Bf 109, oli ka Spitfire täismetallist pingestatud nahaga monoplaan. See oli tol ajal uus tehnoloogia ja paljud tootmisprobleemid tuli lahendada, mis tõi kaasa märkimisväärsed viivitused, enne kui uus hävitaja hakkas jõudma RAF -i eskadrillidesse.

Spitfire oli madala tõmbejõuga disain, mida saaks järk -järgult täiustada, et sammu pidada välismaiste arengutega. Ja igal juhul oli see tõeline piloodi lennuk. Ta osutus kergesti lendavaks ja andestavaks, võitlejaks ilma pahedeta. Tema kabiin oli suhteliselt avar ja pakkus head vaatevälja.

See oli teravas vastuolus tema suurima rivaali ME 109 -ga, mida oli keeruline juhtida nii maapinnal kui ka õhus. See oli oluline kaalutlus sõja ajal, kui pilootide väljaõpe pandi suurele käigule ja "keppimise aeg" vähenes. Ja 109 kabiin oli kitsas ja sellel oli halvem vaateväli.

Esimene tootmisversioon oli Mk. I, kes asus eskadroniteenistusse 1938. aasta keskel. Kui sõda 1939. aastal saabus, nõudis RAF, et Suurbritannias hoitakse kinni suurem osa oma kaasaegsetest ühelennulistest hävitajatest, saates Prantsusmaale vaid mõned kaasaegsed orkaanid ja mitte ühtegi Spitfiire'i. See osutus heaks otsuseks, kuna pärast Prantsusmaa langemist võis RAF -i hävitajate juhtkond Luftwaffe 800 Bf 109 -ga kohtumiseks paigutada umbes 620 orkaani ja teraviku. Luftwaffel oli ka umbes 275 Bf 110 kahemootorilist hävitajat "Destroyer", kuid need osutusid ühemootoriliste Briti hävitajate jaoks sobimatuks.

Spitfire Mk peamine variant. IA-l oli kuulus Rolls Royce V-12 Merlin II mootor. See andis 1230 hj. ja sõitis kahe labalise puidust propelleriga, andes varasele Spitfire'ile tippkiiruseks umbes 360 m/h ja parima tõusukiiruse 2530 jalga/min. Suurbritannia lahingu ajaks oli paigaldatud kolme labaga püsikiirusega propeller, mis parandas märgatavalt tõusu ja kiirendust.

Selle perioodi tüüpiline relvastus nii Spitfires kui Hurricanes oli 8-303 kali Browning kuulipildujad, neli kummaski tiivas. Mõni Spitfires oli varustatud 2-20 mm kahuriga ja paari kuulipildujaga ning neid kutsuti Mk. IB -d.

Mõlemal juhul oli nende jõudlus lähedane Bf 109E omadele, kusjuures Spitfire oli kergemini manööverdatav ja veidi kiirem ning Messerschmitt oli sukeldumises kiirem ja kiirema veeremiskiirusega.

1940. aastal oli Mk. Hakkas ilmuma II ja asendas Mk. I 1941. aasta alguses. Mk. II toiteallikaks oli 1240 hj. Merlin XII, mis andis talle tippkiiruse peaaegu identse Mk -ga. I (354 m.p.h. 17 550 jalga), kuid suurem tõusumäär (3025 jalga/min).

Tasub mainida, et Spitfiresil olid karburaatorid, mitte kütuse sissepritse, ja mootorid suleksid kütuse puudusel, kui lennukiga tagurpidi lennata. Seda probleemi ei lahendatud enne, kui hilise tootmise Mk jaoks kasutati täiustatud süsivesikuid. V ja hilisemad mudelid. Mk. II -d olid samuti relvastatud kas kaheksa kuulipilduja või kuulipildujate ja suurtükkide seguga. Kõigil selle perioodi Spitfiire'idel olid elliptilise plaani tiivad ja need olid (minu arvates) kõikide hävituslennukite seas kõige graatsilisemad.

Ajalugu salvestab, et need Teravmäed (ja orkaanid) olid Suurbritannia lahingus ülekaalus. Nende peamine puudus, jällegi nagu Bf 109, oli nende lähiala. See ei olnud probleem, kui nad teenisid Suurbritannia lahingu ajal pealtkuulaja rollis, kuid see muutus ilmseks veaks, kui RAF läks rünnakule.

Järgnevalt on toodud Spitfire Mk põhispetsifikatsioonid. IIA 1940. aasta septembris.

R. R. Merlin XII, 12 silindrit Vee, 1236 h.p.

10 000 jalga, 3,4 min 20 000 jalga, 7 min

Merlin 45 mootori (1185 hj 1470 hj sõja hädaolukord 9250 jala kõrgusel) kasutuselevõtu tulemuseks oli Spit V., kui see paigaldati põhilisse Mk -sse. Ma lennukikere. Mk. VA konfiguratsioon oli relvastatud 8-.303 kuulipildujatega ja säilitasid tavalised ümarad tiivaotsad. Enne MK -d toodeti ainult 94 Mk.VA -d. VB alustas tootmist 1941. aasta alguses. VB võttis esmakordselt kasutusele kärbitud tiivaotsad, et veeremismäära suurendada. Sellel oli ka täiustatud relvastus 2–20 mm kahurist ja 4–303 kuulipildujast. Mingi 3911 Mk. Vb-sid toodeti enne, kui relvastus taas 4-20 mm kahuriks muudeti, luues seega Mk. VC. Veel 2467 Mk. Toodeti VC -sid. Selleks ajaks olid Merlin 45, 46, 50, 50A, 55 ja 56 mootorid paigaldatud keskmise kõrgusega versioonidesse ning Merlin 45M, 50M ja 55M mootorid paigaldati madala kõrgusega variantidesse.

Mk. VC tippkiirus oli kuni 374 mph 13 000 jala kõrgusel, teeninduslagi 37 000 jalga ja parim tõusumäär 2900 jalga/min. Kuid Spitfire oli hakanud üldises jõudluses Bf 109F -st maha jääma. Jõudluslõhe suurenes, kui sakslased tutvustasid hävitajat FW 190A. Mitte kunagi vähem, Mk. V oli üks arvukamaid Spitfire mudeleid.

Umbes jaanuarist 1940 oli kuninglik merevägi nõudnud lennukite kandmiseks Spitfire'i mereväe versiooni, kuid RAF -i hävitusjuhatuse vajadused olid esikohal. Lõpuks, 1942. aasta alguses hakkas kuninglik merevägi saama esimest 166 -st Spitfire Mk -st. VB -sid on muudetud sabakonksu ja tugevdatud tagumise kere lisamisega. Neid nimetati Seafire Mk. IB. Juunis 1942 täiustatud Seafire Mk. IIC, mis põhineb Spitfire Mk -l. VC, ilmus. See sisaldas katapultrulle, tugevamat telikut ja Merlin 45 või 46 mootorit. Seafire L Mk. IIC-del oli kaasas Merlin 32 mootor ja 4-labaline propeller, mis parandas jõudlust madalatel kõrgustel.

1943. aasta juunis hakkas RN vastu võtma Seafire Mk. III. Selle mootoriks oli Melin 55 mootor ja lõpuks olid tal kokkuklapitavad tiivad. Seafire LF Mk põhilised spetsifikatsioonid. III hõlmas tippkiirust 348 mph 6000 jala kõrgusel, ronimist 5000 jalani 1,9 minutiga, hoolduslagi 24 000 jalga ja vahemikku 513 miili koos välise kütusepaagiga.

MK. VI oli kavandatud kõrgmäestikus hävitajaks ja sellel oli suurenenud tiivaulatus ja rõhu all olev kabiin. See kasutas VB lennukiraami. Tarned algasid 1942. aasta alguses, kuid toodeti ainult 100.

Järgmine suur tootmismudel oli Mk. IX, kõige arvukam kõigist Spitfire mudelitest. Mk. IX oli Mk. V lennukiraam oli ühendatud uue kaheastmelise kahekäigulise ülelaadimisega Merlin 70 mootoriga, mis arendas 1065 jala kõrgusel 1655 hj.

See uus mootor oli tõesti mõeldud uuele Spitfire Mk -le. VIII lennukikere, kuid sündmuste ajakirjandus sundis selle omaks võtma vanemas lennukiraamis. Tulemus oli aga üsna rahuldav. Tippkiirus tõsteti 27500 jalani 415 miili tunnis. Parim tõusukiirus hüppas 4530 jalale minutis. Mk. IX hakkas teenistusse asuma umbes 1942. aasta keskel ja osutus suuteliseks kohtuma Saksa võitlejatega sisuliselt võrdsetel alustel. Elliptiline tiibplaan oli Mk standardvarustuses. IX, mis oli Bf 109G jaoks ligikaudu kaasaegne. Nagu see võitleja, Mk. IX teenis kogu ülejäänud sõja erinevates rollides.

Mk VIII tuli lõpuks välja septembris 1942, sisaldades palju detailiparandusi, sealhulgas paremat voolujoonelisust ja täielikult sissetõmmatavat tagaratast. Tavaliselt oli selle mootoriks 1710 hj Merlin 64 mootor. Tippkiirus oli 408 mph kiirusel 25 000 jalga, teeninduslagi 43 000 jalga ja parim tõusumäär 3790 jalga/min. Seda versiooni kasutati enamasti Kaug -Idas, suhteliselt hilja sõjas. Eriline kõrgmäestiku versioon oli Mk. VII, millel olid sarnaselt eelkäijatele pikemad tiivad ja survestatud kokpit.

Merlini mootor oli selleks ajaks saavutanud oma maksimaalse potentsiaali ja Supermarine katsetas võimsama Rolls Royce Griffoni mootori kohandamist Spitfire'iga. Griffon -mootoritega seafires, mis on mõeldud asendama Mk. III, olid samuti väljatöötamisel.

Grifoonmootoriga Seafiresiga tegelemiseks oli esialgne mudel Mk. XV. Selle aluseks oli Seafire Mk. Suurendava rooliga III lennukiraam, mida toidab 1750 hj arendav Griffon VI mootor. Tarned algasid 1944. aasta sügisel. Tippkiirus oli 383 mph kiirusel 13 500 jalga, aeg 20 000 jalani 7,0 minutit ja teeninduslagi 35 500 jalga.

Järgnev Seafire Mk. XVII -l oli pisarakujuline varikatus, alumisseadmete riiulid ja täiustatud veermik. See kasutas Griffoni mootori madalal kõrgusel versiooni, nelja labaga propellerit, suurendatud rooli ja oli relvastatud 4-20 mm kahuritega.

Spitfire Mk. 1944. aasta XIV oli Mk. Pikendatud ninaga VIII lennukiraam, mida toidab Rolls Royce Griffon 65 mootor. See arendas 2035 hj, mis sobib tippkiiruseks kõrgetel 448 mph kõrgusel. Uus mootor sõitis viie labaga sõukruvi ja andis Mk. XIV täiustatud teenuse ülemmäär ja täiustatud jõudlus kõrgustel. Parim tõusumäär oli üle 5000 jala/min. Hiljem Mk. XIV-del oli nähtavuse parandamiseks "pisar" stiilis varikatus. Mk. XIV toodeti kokku 957 pluss 300 sarnast Mk. XVIII aastad.

Viimane lavastus Spitfires oli Mk. 21, 22 ja 24. Samaväärsed mereväe mudelid olid Seafire F Mk. 45, 46 ja 47. The Seafire Mks. 46 ja 47 olid varustatud vastassuunas pöörleva propelleriga, et välistada õhkutõusmise kalduvus. Ühtegi neist Spitfire ja Seafire mudelitest ei toodetud suurtes kogustes. Kõik tulid koos pisaravarjundiga ja esimest korda kujundati tiib ümber. Uus tiib oli plaanilt sarnane, kuid tugevam, kandis rohkem kütust, tal oli pikem telik (mis võimaldas suurema läbimõõduga sõukruvi) ja kandis nelja 20 mm kahurit. The Seafire Mks. 46 ja 47 olid täiustatud kokkuklapitavad tiivad, samas kui Mk. 45 -l olid fikseeritud tiivad. Seafire 47 teenis Korea sõjas. Spitfire Mk tippkiirus. 22 oli 450 miili tunnis ja parim tõusumäär 4900 jalga/min.

Nende mudelitega oli Spitfire jõudnud oma pika karjääri lõpuni. Esimene Mk. 21 -d asusid teenistusse aprillis 1945, viimane Mk. 24 saadeti kohale märtsis 1948. Sõda oli läbi ja reaktiivlennuaeg oli alanud. Kokku oli toodetud umbes 22 800 igat tüüpi Spitfiire'i ja Seafire'i.


Sisu

Peamine tegur, mis võimaldas Spitfire'i jätkata, oli järk-järgult võimsamate ja täiustatud mootorite väljatöötamine, alustades Rolls-Royce Merlinist ja liikudes suuremaks ja võimsamaks Rolls-Royce Griffoniks. Kõrge oktaanarvuga lennukikütuste areng ja täiustatud ülelaadimiskonstruktsioonid võimaldasid Rolls-Royce'il ammutada üha enam energiat samadest põhikonstruktsioonidest. Näiteks Splinfire I -d toitev Merlin II ja III tootsid maksimaalselt 1030 ja 160 hj (770  kW), kasutades 87 oktaanarvulist lennukikütust, mis oli üldiselt saadaval 1938. aastast kuni 1941. aastani 1940. aasta algusest, suurendades 100 oktaanarvuga kütust. lubas suurendada maksimaalset võimsust 1310 ja 160 hj -ni (977  kW) koos ülelaaduri suurendatud rõhuga, ehkki maksimaalseks ajavahemikuks 5 minutit. ΐ ] 1944. aastal võimaldasid 100/150 klassi kütused Merlin 66 -l toota madalatel kõrgustel F.S -käiguga 1860 ja#160 hj (1387  kW).

Üheastmelised ülelaadurid [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

Sõltuvalt ülelaadurist hinnati paigaldatud mootoreid madalale kõrgusele (nt Merlin 66, Griffon III), kus mootori maksimaalne võimsus oli alla 3000 ja 160 m, keskmise kõrgusega (Merlin 45), kus mootor tootis oma maksimaalne võimsus kuni umbes 20 000 jalga (6100   m) ja kõrge kõrgus (Merlin 70), kus mootor tootis oma maksimaalset võimsust üle umbes 25 000 jala (7600   m). Selle tulemusel kasutasid eesliited, mida kasutati enamikes hilisemates Spitfire'i variantides, L.F. Mark. F. Mark .. ja H.F Mark näitasid, kas paigaldatud mootorid sobivad madalale, keskmisele või suurele kõrgusele. Nende eesliidete kasutamine ei muutunud vastavalt tiibadele, millele võis paigaldada "kärbitud" otsikud, vähendades tiivaulatust umbes 9,9 meetrini (see võib veidi erineda) või "teravaid" näpunäiteid mis suurendas tiivaulatust 12,29 meetrini.

Spitfire F Mk XII 41 ruutmeetrit. Griffon II-d või VI-d kasutasid üheastmelist ülelaadurit, mis toodab madalal kõrgusel maksimaalset võimsust.

Algsetes Merlini ja Grifoni mootorites kasutati üheastmelisi ülelaadureid. Üheastmelise ülelaaduriga varustatud mootorite puhul suruti kompressori õhu sisselaskeava kaudu surutud õhk kokku ülelaaduri tiiviku abil. Merlin II/III, XII ja 40 seeria puhul segati õhu kokkusurumisel kütust, mida enne mootori silindritesse suunamist juhiti läbi SU karburaatori. Merlin III tootis 1030 ja#160 hj (770  kW) kiirusel 43 kW ( +6¼lb/in²) "võimendust" ("võimendus" on rõhk, milleni õhu ja kütuse segu enne silindritesse söötmist kokku surutakse) . Α ] Üheastmelise ülelaaduri piirang oli see, et maksimaalne võimsus langes kõrgemate kõrguste saavutamisel kiiresti, kuna õhurõhk ja õhutihedus koos kõrgusega vähenevad, kolbmootori efektiivsus langeb õhu kaalu vähenemise tõttu. #91nb 1 ], mida saab mootorisse tõmmata, näiteks õhu tihedus on 30 000 jalga (9100 ja#160 m) 1/3 merepinna tihedusest, seega saab tõmmata ainult 1/3 õhukogusest silindrisse ja ainult 1/3 kütusest saab põletada.

Kompressorit võib mõelda kas õhu tiheduse kunstliku suurendamise teel selle kokkusurumisel - või kui suruda silindrisse tavalisest rohkem õhku iga kord, kui kolb alla liigub. Β ]

Kaheastmelised kahekiiruselised ülelaadurid [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

Kõige põhimõttelisem muudatus hilisemates Merlin (60, 70, 80 ja 100 seeria) ja Griffon (60 ja 80 seeria) mootorites oli kaheastmelise kahekäigulise ülelaaduri lisamine, mis tõstis märkimisväärselt võimsust, eriti suurematel kõrgustel. Kaheastmeline viitab kahe tiiviku [nb 2 ] kasutamisele ühisel veovõllil, mis moodustavad kaks järjestikust ülelaadurit, kuna õhu sisselaskekütuse kaudu pumbati karburaator õhuvoolu. Γ ] Esimese astme tiivik surus kokku õhu ja kütuse segu ning see suunati seejärel väiksemale teise astme tiivikule, mis segu veelgi kokku surus.

Töörattaid juhtis hüdrauliline kahekäiguline käigukast. Δ ] Madalal ja keskmisel kõrgusel oli ülelaadur sisse lülitatud Mõõdukas ülelaadur või PRL. käik (see viitas hammasrattale ja seega ka tiivikule töötamise kiirusele). Kui lennuk jõudis ja ronis läbi komplekti kriitiline kõrgus (20 000 jalga (6100   m) Merlin 61 ja 70 seeria Ε ] puhul) hakkab võimsus langema, kui atmosfäärirõhk (õhutihedus) langeb. Kriitilise kõrguse ületamisel käitus käigukast, mis muutis kiirust, rõhu all töötava aneroidkapsliga Täislaadur (F.S.) käik, mis ajas tiivikuid kiiremini, surudes seega kokku suurema õhu-kütuse segu mahu. Ζ ] [nb 3 ]

Vahejahuti pidi peatama kokkusurutud segu liiga kuumaks muutumise ja süttimise enne silindriteni jõudmist (süüteeelne koputus) või luues koputamise või plahvatuse. Vahejahuti, mis oli eraldi mootori jahutussüsteemist koos oma glükooli ja veejahutusvedelikuga, paigaldati induktsioonisüsteemi, teise astme ülelaaduri väljalaskeava vahele ja silindriplokkide taha. The hot air—fuel mixture from the supercharger was circulated though and around the coolant tubes and was then passed on to the main induction manifold through which it was fed into the cylinders. The intercooler also circulated coolant through passages in the supercharger casing and between the impellers. Η] Finally, an extra radiator (mounted in the starboard radiator duct under the wing of the Spitfire) was used to dissipate the intercooler's excess charge temperature. Η]

With the two-stage, two-speed supercharger two sets of power ratings can be quoted. As an example, the maximum power generated by the Merlin 61 was 1,565 hp (1,167 kW) at 12,250 feet (3,730 m) (critical altitude) at M.S. speed, using + 15 lb/in² "boost". Ε] The F.S. gear required approximately 200 hp (149 kW) to drive it. As a result the maximum power generated by the Merlin 61 in F.S. was 1,390 hp (1,036 kW) at 25,900 feet (7,900 m) using + 15 lb/in² of boost. Ε] ⎖]

Spitfire Mk VIII. Merlin 63, 66 or 70 engine with a two-stage, two—speed supercharger.

The Merlin 66 used in the L.F. Mk IX produced slightly more power but because of the use of slightly different gear ratios driving smaller impellors, the critical altitude ratings of the supercharger stages were lower, 7,000 feet (2,100 m) and 18,000 feet (5,500 m) respectively. By contrast the Merlin 70, which was optimised for high altitude flight, had critical altitudes of 14,000 feet (4,300 m) (M.S) and 25,400 feet (7,700 m) (F.S). ⎗]

Unlike the Merlin engines the Griffons used superchargers which were designed to achieve maximum performance over a wider altitude band as such there were no Griffon engined L.F. or H.F. Spitfire variants.

Carburettors [ edit | edit source ]

The original production variants of the Merlin used an SU manufactured carburettor in which the fuel flow was metered through a float. In most circumstances this proved to be sufficient but during the air battles over Dunkirk and during the Battle of Britain it was found that whenever the Merlin was subjected to negative "g" forces, such as a quick "bunt" into a dive, the engine would briefly lose power through petrol starvation. This was because the petrol in the float was being thrown away from the feed pipe to the supercharger. The fuel injected Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine gave the Bf 109 especially an advantage over the carburettor-equipped engine no Spitfire could simply "bunt" and dive away from an opponent as the 109 could. ⎘] The remedy, invented by Beatrice "Tilly" Shilling, was to fit a metal diaphragm with a hole in it, across the float chambers. It partly cured the problem of fuel starvation in a dive.

The full remedy was to use the Bendix-Stromberg pressure carburettor, which allowed more precise metering of the amount of fuel used by the engine and prevented the problem of fuel starvation. This new carburettor was used from the Merlin 66 series and on all Griffon engines. In these engines the carburettor injected fuel at 5 psi through a nozzle direct into the supercharger and the compressed air—fuel mixture was then directed to the cylinders. The final development was the SU injection carburettor which injected fuel into the supercharger using a fuel pump driven as a function of crankshaft speed and engine pressures although this was fitted to the 100 series Merlins, which were not used in production Spitfires, it was used in the Griffon 60 and 80 series.

Spitfire F.24 of 80 Squadron. This was the final mark of Spitfire powered by a Griffon 85 driving a five bladed Rotol propeller.

Boost pressure measurements [ edit | edit source ]

The British measured boost pressure as lbs./sq.inch (or psi). The normal atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.6959 psi, although this can vary from day to day: a reading of +6 meant that the air/fuel mix was being compressed by a supercharger blower to 20.7 (rounded figure) psi before entering the engine +25 meant that the air/fuel mix was being compressed to 39.7 psi. However, there was a problem with the British system of measuring boost, in that in an aircraft the pressure gauges should measure absolute pressure within the engine's supercharger, rather than showing atmospheric pressure at sea level, plus the supercharger's pressure at sea level this was a reasonable measure but, in engines that were used through different altitudes this method becomes completely arbitrary. Because the Americans measured their boost ratings using inches of Mercury (" Hg), their boost gauges more accurately recorded the absolute pressures being generated by the superchargers at all altitudes. ⎙]

Inches of Mercury (" Hg) Pounds of Boost ⎙]
80.9" of mercury= +25 lb boost
66.6" of mercury= +18 lb boost
60.5" of mercury= +15 lb boost
48.3" of mercury= +9 lb boost
42.2" of mercury= +6 lb boost


Supermarine Spiteful and Seafang Fighters

In 1942, the British Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough and Supermarine Aviation were working on ways to improve the Spitfire fighter. One of the main limiting factors of the aircraft was with its wing encountering compressibility at high speed. The investigation led to interest in designing a laminar flow airfoil and adapting it to an existing Spitfire airframe. In late 1942, the British National Physics Laboratory joined the effort, and Supermarine issued Specification No 470 for the new Spitfire wing in November. As designed, the new wing was 200 lb (91 kg) lighter, would increase the aircraft’s roll rate, and was expected to increase the aircraft’s speed.

The first Supermarine Spiteful prototype (NN660) consisted of new laminar flow wings mounted to a Spitfire XIV fuselage. Note the wide and shallow radiator housings under the wings and the standard canopy

A proposal was submitted to the British Air Ministry and gathered enough interest for Specification F.1/43 to be issued in February 1943, calling for a single-seat fighter with a laminar flow wing for Air Force service and provisions for a folding wing to meet Fleet Air Arm (FAA) requirements. Supermarine proceeded with the design under the designation Type 371. Originally, the aircraft was to be named Victor or Valiant, names that were previously (but temporarily) applied to advanced Spitfire models. However, the Type 371 eventually had its name changed to Spiteful. Three prototypes were ordered, and a fourth was added later.

The design of the Supermarine Spiteful was overseen by Joseph Smith. The laminar flow wing was much thinner than the wing used on the Spitfire and necessitated a complete redesign. The all-metal wing had two spars and a straight taper on the leading and trailing edges, which simplified its manufacture. The skin used was relatively thick to add rigidity and improve aileron control. Unlike with the Spitfire, the landing gear retracted inward with the main wheels being housed in the comparatively thick wing roots. The landing gear struts compressed as the gear retracted to minimize the space needed within the wing. Wide and shallow radiators for engine cooling were housed behind the main gear wells. The oil cooler was positioned behind the coolant radiator in the left wing, and the intercooler radiator was positioned in front of the coolant radiator in the right wing. The radiator housings had adjustable inlets and exit flaps. Each wing had two 20 mm cannons with 167 rounds for each inner gun and 145 rounds for each outer gun. The underside of each wing could accommodate two 300 lb (136 kg) rockets or a hardpoint for a drop tank or a bomb up to 1,000 lb (454 kg).

The all-metal, monocoque fuselage of the Spiteful was similar to that of the Spitfire. The cockpit was raised to improve the pilot’s view over the aircraft’s nose. A new, sliding bubble canopy covered the cockpit. Four fuel tanks in the fuselage, forward of the cockpit, held a total of 120 gal (100 Imp gal / 455 L), and a tank in each wing root held 10 gal (8 Imp gal / 36 L). Starting with the third prototype, a 74 gal (62 Imp gal / 282 L) fuel tank was added behind the cockpit, bringing the total internal capacity to 214 gal (178 Imp gal / 809 L). Two 108 gal (90 Imp gal / 409 L) drop tanks could be carried under the wings, or a single 204 gal (170 Imp gal / 773 L) drop tank could be mounted to the aircraft’s centerline.

The Spiteful prototype (NN664) is considered the first true Spiteful because it incorporated the new fuselage. The aircraft was never painted. Note the standard, Spitfire F.21 tail.

The Spiteful’s Mark numbers were a continuation of those used on the Spitfire. The Spiteful F.XIV (F.14) was powered by a 2,375 hp (1,771 kW) Rolls-Royce Griffon 69 with a five-blade, single-rotation propeller. The Spiteful F.XV (F.15) was powered by the 2,350 hp (1,752 kW) Griffon 89 or 90 with a six-blade, contra-rotating propeller. Both Griffon engines had a two-stage, two-speed supercharger, and both the five- and six-blade propellers were 11 ft (3.35 m) in diameter and built by Rotol. Originally, a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine could be substituted for the Griffon if Griffon engine production was found to be lacking, but the Merlin option was dropped in mid-1944.

The Spiteful had a 35 ft (10.67 m) wingspan, was 32 ft 11 in (9.76 m) long, and was 13 ft 5 in (4.10 m) tall. The aircraft had a maximum speed of 409 mph (658 km/h) at sea level, 437 mph (703 km/h) at 5,500 ft (1,676 m), and 483 mph (777 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Cruising speed for maximum range was 250 mph (402 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,096 m). The Spiteful’s stalling speed was 95 mph (153 km/h). The aircraft’s range was 564 mi (908 km) on internal fuel and 1,315 mi (2,116 km) with drop tanks. The Spiteful had an empty weight of 7,350 lb (3,334 kg), a normal weight of 9,950 lb (4,513 kg), and a maximum weight of 11,400 lb (5,171 kg). The aircraft had an initial rate of climb of 4,890 fpm (24.8 m/s) and a ceiling of 42,000 ft (12,802 m).

A comparison of the third Spiteful prototype (NN667) and the ninth F.XIV production aircraft (RB523). Both have the elongated intake scoop mounted under the engine and just behind the spinner. Note the larger tail compared to the first two Spiteful prototypes.

With other war work taking priority, it was some time before Supermarine had anything related to the Spiteful to test. A mockup was inspected in March 1944, and the aircraft’s name was changed to Spiteful around this time. A set of wings was fitted to a Spitfire XIV (serial number NN660), which became the first Spiteful prototype. The aircraft was first flown on 30 June 1944, with Jeffrey Quill as the pilot. The aircraft used the same 2,035 hp (1,518 kW) Griffon 61 engine as installed in a standard Spitfire XIV, but its performance was superior to that of a standard Spitfire XIV. However, the Spiteful also exhibited rather violent stalling characteristics compared to the fairly docile stall of the Spitfire. This was attributed to the outer wing with the aileron stalling first, which was the opposite of how the Spitfire’s elliptical wing stalled. With the Spitfire, the outer wing stalled last and enabled the ailerons to remain effective deep into the stall. On 13 September 1944, NN660 crashed while engaged in a dog-fight test with a standard Spitfire XIV. The pilot, Frank Furlong, was killed in the crash. A definitive cause was never determined, but it was believed that the aileron control rods became jammed during moderate G maneuvers.

On 8 January 1945, the second Spiteful prototype (NN664) took to the air, piloted by Quill. The aircraft incorporated updated aileron controls and the new Spiteful fuselage. However, NN664 had a tail similar to that used on the Spitfire F.21. Extensive handling tests were undertaken on NN664 that resulted in a few changes. The most significant change was a redesigned tail with its vertical stabilizer and rudder area increased by 28 percent and its horizontal stabilizer and elevator area increased by 27 percent. NN664 first flew with the new tail on 24 June 1945, and the aircraft was sent to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE) at RAF Boscombe Down for flight trials.

The underside of Spiteful RB515, the first production aircraft, illustrates the wings’ straight leading and trailing edges. Note the standard, short intake scoop. Outlines of the radiator housing doors are visible.

Shortly after NN664’s first flight, the Air Ministry ordered 650 Spiteful aircraft. The order went through a number of reductions, including the cancellation of 150 Spitefuls around 5 May 1945 so that a comparable number of Seafangs (see below) could be ordered. The fourth prototype was included in these cancellations.

The third Spiteful prototype (NN667) was sent to the A&AEE for service evaluations on 1 February 1946. It was found that the aircraft exhibited several areas of poor build quality, and there were numerous concerns with its ease of serviceability. A multitude of fasteners needed to be undone in order to remove the engine cowling, and rearming the aircraft was a time-consuming process that involved disconnecting the controls to the ailerons. A number of modifications and improvements were suggested, but it is not clear just how many were implemented. For at least part of its existence, NN667 had an elongated air intake that would be featured on the Seafang (see below). Other Spitefuls also had the longer scoop (at least RB517, RB518, RB522 and RB523).

The first production Spiteful F.XIV (RB515) made its first flight on 2 April 1945, with Quill in the pilot’s seat. The aircraft originally had an F.21 tail, but a larger Spiteful tail was installed after RB515’s third flight, which ended in a forced landing. The aircraft’s first flight with the new tail was on 21 May 1945. On 27 September 1945, RB515 suffered an engine failure and made another forced landing at Farnborough. The damaged aircraft was subsequently written off.

Another view of RB515 illustrates the larger Spiteful tail that was later applied to the Spitfire F.22 and F.24. The tail improved the Spiteful’s handling, but the aircraft’s stall was still violent compared to the Spitfire’s.

Spiteful RB518 was fitted with a rounded Seafang (see below) windscreen and a 2,420 hp (1,805 kW) Griffon 101 engine to become the sole Spiteful F.XVI (F.16). The Griffon 101 had a two-stage, three-speed supercharger and turned a five-blade, single rotation propeller. In 1947, RB518 achieved 494 mph (795 km/h) at 27,800 ft (8,473 m), the highest level-flight speed recorded by a British piston-powered aircraft. Testing of this aircraft with not-fully-developed engines resulted in seven forced landings—the last was at Chilbolton in March 1949 and resulted in the landing gear being pushed through the wings. The aircraft was then dropped by the recovery crane, ending any hope of repair.

By February 1946, the Spiteful order had been reduced to 80 aircraft. This was again reduced on 22 May 1946 to 22 aircraft, and the Spiteful order finally dropped to 16 aircraft on 16 December 1946. The production order basically covered the aircraft that had been built, although some of the last aircraft may not have flown. A 17th Spiteful, RB520 (the sixth production aircraft), was handed over to the FAA for Seafang (see below) development on 22 September 1945. The aircraft was modified for carrier feasibility trials with a “stinger” arrestor hook incorporated into a special housing below the rudder. RB520 retained the standard, non-folding Spiteful wings.

Powered with a two-stage, three-speed Griffon 101 engine, Spiteful RB518 achieved a level-flight speed of 494 mph (795 km/h), the highest recorded by a British piston-powered aircraft. RB518 was the only F.XVI Spiteful and was subsequently written off after its seventh forced landing.

The production aircraft were serialed RB515 to RB525, RB527 to RB531, and RB535. The final Spiteful was delivered on 17 January 1947. Of the three Spiteful prototypes and 17 production aircraft, most were sold for scrap in July 1948. It appears RB518 was the last Spiteful to fly, and no examples of the type survive. The larger “Spiteful tail” was incorporated into the last Spitfires, the F.22 and F.24.

The Spiteful’s cancellation was based on a number of realities including the more impressive performance of jet aircraft, the end of World War II, and serviceability questions about the Spiteful. While the Spiteful’s speed was impressive, it was below the 504 mph (811 km/h) that was originally estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the aircraft’s laminar wing decreased substantially if there were imperfections, including smashed bugs, on the leading edge. It was unlikely that an in-service warplane would be free of all imperfections.

Spiteful RB520 was loaned out for Seafang development and is considered by some as a Seafang prototype. Note the tail hook housed below the rudder and the “Royal Navy” stenciling on the fuselage.

Back in October 1943, Supermarine designed the Type 382, which was basically a navalized Spiteful. The design had started with mounting a Spiteful-type, laminar flow wing on a Seafire XV. Little official interest was given to the project until 21 April 1945, when the Air Ministry issued Specification N.5/45 for a single-seat fighter for the FAA. Subsequently, Supermarine was awarded a contract for two prototype Type 382 fighters, which became the Seafang. An order for 150 Seafang aircraft was placed on 7 May 1945 this order was essentially a reallocation of Spiteful aircraft that had been cancelled around two days prior.

The production Seafang closely matched the Spiteful but incorporated wings designed so that the last four feet folded vertically. The folding mechanism was hydraulically-powered. The Seafang had an elongated carburetor intake scoop, with the opening just behind the propeller. The aircraft also had a rounded front windscreen rather than the flat plate used on the Spiteful. Under the rudder was a stinger tail hook for catching the arresting cables on the carrier deck. The Seafang’s landing gear was re-enforced to handle carrier operations. The fuel tank behind the cockpit was reduced to 54 gal (45 imp gal / 205 L), resulting in a total internal capacity of 193 gal (161 Imp gal / 732 L).

The first production Supermarine Seafang F.31 (VG471) was essentially a Spiteful with arrestor gear. All F.31 aircraft had standard, non-folding wings. Note what appears to be a wide-cord propeller.

Like the Spiteful, two Seafang variants were planned. The F.31 used the 2,375 hp (1,771 kW) Griffon 69 engine with a five-blade, single-rotation propeller, while the F.32 used the 2,350 hp (1,752 kW) Griffon 89 with a six-blade, contra-rotating propeller. The F.31 was basically a Spiteful with an arrestor hook and did not incorporate folding wings. The F.31s would serve as a test aircraft while the F.32 was being developed.

The Supermarine Seafang had a 35 ft (10.67 m) wingspan, was 34 ft 1 in (10.39 m) long, and was 12 ft 7 in (3.84 m) tall. With wings folded, the span was reduced to 27 ft (8.23 m). The aircraft had a maximum speed of 397 mph (639 km/h) at sea level, 428 mph (689 km/h) at 5,500 ft (1,676 m), and 475 mph (764 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Cruising speed for maximum range was 250 mph (402 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,096 m). The aircraft’s range was 393 mi (632 km) on internal fuel. The Seafang weighed 8,000 lb (3,629 kg) empty, 10,450 lb (4,740 kg) with a normal load, and 11,900 lb (53,98 kg) maximum. The aircraft had an initial rate of climb of 4,630 fpm (23.5 m/s) and a ceiling of 42,000 ft (12,802 m).

The side view of Seafang VG471 illustrates many of the aircraft’s features: long intake scoop, straight wing edges, radiator scoop doors, rounded windscreen, bubble canopy, large tail, and arrestor hook.

As previously mentioned, some Spitefuls had the long intake carburetor scoop RB518 had a Seafang windscreen and RB520 was fitted with an arrestor hook (resulting in some sources classifying it as a Seafang prototype). This was all done to lead up to Seafang F.31 production aircraft, which were basically Spitefuls with arrestor hooks. The first Seafang F.31 was VG471, which followed the fifth Spiteful off the production line. All of the F.31s had the five-blade propeller, lacked folding wings, and would end up the only production Seafangs that were completed. VG471 was first flown in early January 1946 and used in arrestor hook trials. The original hook installation proved to be weak, and a redesigned system was installed in March 1946. The aircraft passed the trials on 1 May.

The prototype Seafang F.32s were serial numbers VB893 and VB895, and both had contra-rotating propellers and folding wings. VB895 was first flown in early 1946 and was delivered to the A&AEE on 30 June. In August 1946, VB895 was demonstrated separately to the Royal Netherlands Navy, French representatives, and United States representatives in an attempt to sell the Seafang to allies. However, no orders were placed. In May 1947, test pilot Mike Lithgow successfully performed deck trials in VB895 on the HMS Illustrious. The aircraft’s wide track landing gear drastically increased its stability while on the ground, and the contra-rotating propeller eliminated the torque effect. VB895 was also tested with a single, fuselage-mounted 204 gal (170 Imp gal / 773 L) drop tank, and the aircraft was used for armament trials. During a static test firing of the cannons on 18 May 1948, a build-up of gases in the left wing resulted in an explosion that damaged the wing. Extra vents were added, and no further issues occurred.

The Seafang F.32 prototype VB895 was the first fully-navalized aircraft of the series. The contra-rotating propellers eliminated the torque effect that led to the downfall of many aviators, especially when operating from the short deck of an aircraft carrier.

While praised for its handling and responsiveness, the Seafang did not offer any real advantage over the Seafire 47, and the Seafang’s stall was certainly a disadvantage. An order was subsequently placed for the Seafire. The original interest in the Seafang was based on doubts regarding the suitability of jet aircraft for carrier operations. As those doubts faded, so did interest in the Seafang, and the aircraft was cancelled. A few Seafangs were kept active for a brief time to continue evaluating the laminar flow wing, which was used on the Supermarine Type 392 Attacker. The Attacker was often referred to as a “Jet Spiteful,” although it had Seafang folding wings with the radiators removed and additional fuel tanks installed. The Attacker first flew on 27 July 1946, and it was the first jet fighter to enter operational service with the FAA.

Eighteen production Seafangs were built, carrying serial numbers VG471 to VG490. The first 10 aircraft were F.31s, and the remaining eight were F.32s. However, only the first eight or so aircraft were completed, with the remaining units delivered disassembled. Sadly, like the Spiteful, all of the Seafang examples were scrapped.

Note: The Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm used Roman numerals for mark numbers up thorough 1942. From 1943 through 1948, the Roman numerals were phased out for new aircraft, and Arabic numerals were applied. From 1948 onward, Arabic numerals were used exclusively. The Spitefuls were typically referred to using Roman numerals, but the slightly later Seafang used Arabic numerals. The use of both Roman and Arabic numerals in this article refers to the most common use applied for the particular aircraft type.

The folding wings on Seafang VB895 were hydraulically operated and decreased the aircraft’s wingspan by 8 ft (2.4 m). Although, the wide tack landing gear contributed to snaking at low speeds, it enhanced the stability at higher speeds and as the aircraft slammed down on a carrier deck.


Late production Supermarine Spitfire IX - History

Two 20 mm Hispano cannon with 120 rounds per gun four 7.69 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine guns with 350 rounds per gun one 227 kg (500 lb) and two 113 kg (250 lb) bombs

Ajalugu:

Probably the most famous piston-engined fighter aircraft, the Spitfire was conceived as the Supermarine Type 300 single-seat fighter and was designed by a team led by Reginald J Mitchell. The design produced the smallest, simplest fighter that could be built around the new Rolls Royce PV-12 engine, with an armament of eight machine guns. Of light alloy monocoque construction, with a single-spar stressed-skin wing and fabric-covered control surfaces, the prototype (K5054) was flown on 5 March 1936 powered by a 739 kw (990 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin C engine. It soon thereafter attained a maximum speed of 462 km/h (349 mph).

The Spitfire, as it was named soon after the prototype had been flown, was immediately placed in production for the RAF as the Mk I. Production continued until 1947 when the last models, the Seafang and Spiteful, were delivered. Progressive development led to the installation of the Rolls Royce Griffon engine in late production models. This engine had a greater capacity than the Merlin.

The total number of Spitfires built was 20,334, of which 2,053 were Griffon-engined variants. In addition, the type was ‘navalised’ in that it was fitted with an arrester hook and associated equipment and was known as the Seafire when embarked upon aircraft carriers. About 390 Seafires were built. As mentioned, the ultimate developments were the Seafang and Spiteful. In 1947 a Seafang 32 attained 795 km/h (494 mph) at 8,687 m (28,500 ft) with a Griffon 101 engine.

The Spitfire was mainly flown in combat in the European Theatre, where many Australians flew the type with the RAF. However, a considerable number were also operated in the Pacific Theatre with the RAF and RAAF. Following the commencement of Japanese attacks on Australia in February 1942, it was thought an invasion might be imminent and the RAAF was short of suitable fighter aircraft. Plans were put in train to develop the CAC Boomerang, but this did not fly until May 1942, and it was three months before production commenced. Appeals were made to the United Kingdom and the United States for fighter aircraft to defend Australia, the US diverting 25 Curtiss P-40Es, these arriving two weeks after Darwin was first bombed. Britain indicated it would assist and allocated three Spitfire squadrons, two of these being Nos 452 and 457, Australian Empire Training Squadrons which had been operating in Britain with the RAF. The third was No 54 Squadron RAF, which had flown Spitfires in the Battle of Britain.

The first Spitfires to be seen in Australia were the Mk Vs of No 54 Squadron, RAF, which operated in the defence of Darwin, NT from October 1943. A total of 245 Spitfire VCs was allotted to Australia, all being taken on charge by November 1943. All, with the exception of A58-163, which was a Mk VB, were Mk VCs and nearly all had the Mk 46 Merlin engine. They were sent by the British Government following a request by the Australian Government for fighters. A further 11 aircraft failed to reach Australia as the vessel on which they were being conveyed, the Silver Beech, was sunk in April 1943 whilst another Mk VC (EE731) arrived in Australia in March 1943 but was not allocated an RAAF serial, eventually being converted to instructional airframe status after it had an undercarriage collapse at Mildura, VIC in August 1943.

The Mk VC was fitted with a 1,097 kw (1,470 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin 45 engine giving a maximum speed of 602 km/h (374 mph) at 3,962 m (13,000 ft). The armament consisted of four 20 mm Hispano cannon and four 7.69 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine guns. The Mk V series was used widely in Australia and saw operational service in New Guinea and as far across the Pacific as Morotai, where General Macarthur decided Australian Squadrons would not be further involved in the invasion of the Philippines.

The next version to be seen in Australia was the Mk VIII, some 410 examples of this model being supplied to the RAAF. Powered by the 1,276 kw (1,710 hp) Rolls Royce Merlin 63 engine, the Mk VIII had a maximum speed of 657 km/h (408 mph) at 7,620 m (15,000 ft), and an armament of four 20 mm Hispano cannon, or two cannon and four 0.303 in Browning machine guns plus bombs. The first Mk VIII arrived in October 1943, most of the aircraft received arriving in 1944 and early 1946. About 120 went straight into storage on arrival, were scrapped in 1948 and 1949, and were not flown here. The last 159 were HF.VIIIs with the high altitude Merlin 70 engine, very few of these flying in Australia as they were surplus to requirements at that stage of the war.

Spitfires in Australia were flown by Nos 79, 85, 451, 452, 453 and 457 Squadrons, RAAF. In addition, several RAF squadrons served in Australia, including Nos 54, 548 and 549. RAAF Spitfires were serialled: Spitfire F.VC A58-1 to A58-185 and A58-200 to A58-259 Spitfire LF-VIII A58-300 to A58-550 and Spitfire HF-VIII A58-600 to A58-758. Serials A58-551 to A58-599 were not allocated. Once P-51 Mustangs started to be delivered for RAAF service the Spitfires were taken out of service and scrapped. In early 1946 some 339 Spitfires were in long-term storage. A total of 13 Mk VIIIs and one Mk VC was transferred to the Royal Australian Navy in October 1948 for ground training duties, being used to taxi around dummy aircraft carrier decks at HMAS Albatross at Nowra, NSW to give crews handling experience. All eventually had met their fate on the fire dump by 1952.

The Spitfire’s main service in this region was in the defence of the ‘Top End”, and to this end it was very successful. No 1 (Churchill) Wing comprised No 54 Squadron RAF and Nos 452 and 475 Squadrons RAAF. Notable operations included: on 15 March 1943 Spitfires intercepted 22 Mitsubishi G-3M bombers and 27 Mitsubishi A6M fighters over Darwin, accounting for six bombers and two fighters. On 20 June 1943 25 Japanese bombers escorted by fighters were intercepted, with 16 enemy aircraft being shot down. Japanese aircraft thereafter sporadically continued to attack Darwin and were met by defending Spitfires.

More than 150 Spitfires survive around the world, and some 50 are airworthy. In September 2000 at a display in the United Kingdom 22 Spitfires attended and flew in formation. In Australia considerable interest has been shown in the type and a number survive, although in recent years at least three have been exported. One (A58-758 – VH-HET – ex MV239) was restored to airworthiness at Scone, NSW and is now based in a museum at Temora, NSW being regularly flown at airshows on the eastern seaboard. This aircraft, along with A58-671 (ex MV154), was obtained in the early 1950s by Bankstown, NSW aviation identity, Sidney Marshall. MV239 eventually went to Colin Pay at Scone and was restored as VH-HET and MV154 was exported to the United Kingdom where it was restored as G-BKMI.

A Mk VB VH-FVB (ex BL628) is under restoration, and registration VH-XIV has been reserved for a Mk XIX (ex RM797), an ex Royal Thai Air Force aircraft. A Mk HF VIII (A58-615 – ex MT834) is under restoration at Yunta, SA. A Mk VC EE583, recovered from Goodenough Island, is with the South Australian Aviation Museum. Others are under restoration and there is a few fibreglass replicas in museums and on poles. Static display survivors include: Mk II P7973 in the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, ACT Mk VC A58-246 (ex MA863) at the RAAF Museum at Point Cook, VIC and a Mk 22 PK481 at the Air Force Association Museum in Perth, WA.

In December 2005 a Victorian collector obtained Spitfire XVIIIe from the United Kingdom. This aircraft (SM969) was originally delivered to the Indian Air Force as HS877 in July 1949, later becoming G-BRAF with Warbirds of Great Britain Ltd, making its post restoration flight on 12 October 1985.

In New Zealand Mk XVI TE288 is at the RNZAF Museum at Wigram Mk XVI TE456 is at the Domain War Memorial Museum in Auckland but painted as TE425 and Mk XVI ZK-XUI (ex TB863) was airworthy with the Alpine Fighter Collection in Wanaka but in March 2006 was exported to the Temora Aviation Museum in Australia where it became VH-XVI on 17 July 2006 Mk XIV ZK-XIV (ex NT799) is airworthy with the Aviation Trading Co of Cambridge and a further Spitfire was imported in early 2008, being a two-seat Mk IX, which became ZK-WDQ (c/n CBAF 5487 – ex N367MH) to Lasbrook Holdings of Auckland.

In May 2008 two Supermarine Spitfire Mk V projects were placed on the Australian Civil Aircraft Register as VH-CIP (c/n 3074) and VH-CIQ (c/n 5406) to an operator in South Australia. A Spitfire was to be exchanged with the RAAF Museum at Hendon as per an agreement in 2009 which would see a Douglas Havoc restored to display standard by Precision Aerospace of Wangaratta, VIC in exchange for the Spitfire. However, after some restoration on the Havoc, the exchange did not proceed, the Havoc being exported to the Pima Air Museum in the United States.

A Spitfire Mk IX MH603 arrived in Australia in April 2009 for Pays Air Service of Scone for restoration to airworthiness. This aircraft is to be painted in the colours of No 331 (Norwegian) Squadron when completed. A second Spitfire Mk IX BS548 is also undergoing restoration at Scone and is to be completed as a TR.IX, the fuselage being completed in the United Kingdom and the wings and other parts being manufactured in Scone. This aircraft was shot down on 17 April 1943 whilst flying with No 341 Alsace Squadron. It is known some 20 Spitfire projects are underway in Australia. Spitfire A58-246 was restored in USAAF markings and is on display at the USAF Museum at Dayton, Ohio.

At one stage Aviation Australia, a company owned by the Queensland Government and based at Brisbane Airport, obtained two Supermarine Spitfires as training aids but eventually decided they had no training value and the aircraft, a Mk V LZ844 and a Mk IX TE566 (ex ZU-SPT), were sold and shipped to the United Kingdom in May 2011. In July 2011 a Supermarine Spitfire VIII was registered to Mr A Wilson of Frome Downs Station, via Yunta, SA the registration VH-ZPS (c/n 446635 – A58-467, MD338) being allotted but the aircraft is not known to have been completed and flown. Another Spitfire with an Australian connection was Mk IXc RR232, an ex-South African aircraft which spent sometime at the Fleet Air Arm Museum at HMAS Albatross, Nowra and was partially restored for display. Restoration has now been completed and it is flying in the United Kingdom as G-BRSF. In early 2020 a Spitfie LF XVI beame ZK-NLJ (c/n TB252) registered to AVspecs Ltd Beechlands, Auckland.

A replica of a Mk I Spitfire (K9789), the fourth Spitfire built, the original of which was delivered to No 19 Squadron RAF in 1938, was built by Mr Victor Weston of Cooran, QLD. A non-flying replica, it was placed on display at the Queensland Air Museum at Caloundra but in 2014 was placed in storage to make way for the display of the General Dynamics F-111C A8-129.


Let’s clear up the armament question too

Before ending this piece, I want to take a little side detour in the history of armament on the Spitfire. There are four wing types that have been used by the different Spitfire versions. They are:

  • A wing – Four .303 machine guns in each wing for a total of eight.
  • B wing – Two .303 machine guns in the outer wing positions and a 60 round drum fed Hispano Mark II cannon in the inner wing position.
  • C wing – Provisions for two 20mm cannons in each wing (with 120 rpg belt feed for each cannon) and two .303 machine guns in the outer wing positions. In use, the four cannon loadout was rare and all production Mark VIII, IX, XII, and XIV’s were fitted with just one 20mm cannon in each wing and the two .303’s as a backup.
  • E wing – Functionally identical to the C wing but with the .303’s removed and a Browning .50 cal heavy machine gun mounted in one of the cannon bays.

Many ask about the four cannon loadout and if it was ever on the Mark XIV. I can report that it is was not – at least not in any production aircraft or part of regular use. After the brief production of four cannon Mark Vc, the next Spitfire to receive a four cannon loadout was the Spitfire XVIII. This aircraft had a wholly redesigned wing and saw limited production at the end of the war. The war was over before it had a chance to be used in air combat and one squadron saw limited use strafing German ships in a single operation. Post-war Spitfire’s had all cannon armament.



Kommentaarid:

  1. Durane

    täiesti nõus eelmise postitusega

  2. Kaeleb

    Minu arvates pole teil õigus. Arutame seda. Kirjutage mulle PM -is, suhtleme.

  3. Catalin

    Katse mitte piinata.

  4. Vocage

    Vabandust, aga ma arvan, et te eksite. Ma olen kindel. Saan oma positsiooni kaitsta.



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