Ajalugu Podcastid

Manchesteri ja Leedsi raudtee

Manchesteri ja Leedsi raudtee


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1837. aastal andis parlament loa Manchesteri ja Leedsi vahelise raudtee ehitamiseks. Peainsener George Stephensonil oli 51 miili pikkusel raudteel üle Penniinide lahendada mitmeid probleeme. Kõige raskem neist oli 1 miil, 1125 jard pikkune tippkohtumistunnel.

Manchester & Leedsi liin avati 1839. aastal. Ehitati filiaalid Heywoodi (1841), Oldhami (1842) ja Halifaxi (1844). Kolme miili pikkune Woodheadi tunnel Sheffieldi liinil lõpetati alles 1845. Selle tunneli ehitamisel sai surma kolmkümmend kaks mereväelast ja 140 raskelt vigastada. Edwin Chadwick hindas hiljem, et navvidel oli Woodheadi tunneli ehitamisel suurem tõenäosus surma saada (3,0 protsenti) kui neil Briti sõduritel, kes sõdisid Waterloo lahingus (2,11 protsenti). 1848. aastal ehitati liin Londoni ja Looderaudteele, mis võimaldas juurdepääsu Yorkile ja Hullile.


Gracesi juhendist

Leedsi, Dewsbury ja Manchesteri raudtee lisati 30. juuni 1845. aasta seadusega, et rajada liin Manchesterist Huddersfieldi ja Dewsbury kaudu Leedsi.

Esimees oli John Gott ja sekretär William Eagle Bott.

Rajad Huddersfieldi ja Mirfieldi vahel jagati Lancashire'i ja Yorkshire'i raudteega.

Täiendavad filiaalid, sealhulgas üks Birstallile, lubati 27. juuli 1846 täiendava seaduse alusel.

1847 Liin renditi 1847. aasta seaduse alusel 999 aastaks Londoni ja Looderaudteele.

1867 Kirkburtoni juurde ehitati täiendav haru 1867. aastal.

1900 Teine tee Huddersfieldi ja Leedsi vahel, ametlikult tuntud kui Heaton Lodge & amp; Wortley raudtee, ehitati 1900.

Pärast 1923. aasta rühmitust oli LMS -il 3 erinevat marsruuti Leedsi, millest L & ampNWR marsruut oli kõige vähem kasumlik. Pärast aastatepikkust hooletussejätmist suleti L & ampNWR trassi põhjaosa Beeching Axe all tükkhaaval.

„LEEDIDE JA DEWSBURY RAUDTEE AVAMINE. See oluline ettevõtmine - oluline, kuna ühendab Leedsi ja Dewsbury linnu, kuid on veelgi olulisem, kuna moodustab Leedsi ja Manchesteri vahel märkimisväärse suhtlusliini.

'. Peamised tööd on-Leedsi viadukt, mis koosneb sirgetest talasildadest üle Alam-Kuningatänava, 35 jala laiusega, 33 kivikaarega 30 jala laiusega, 20 kaarega 35 jala laiusega, ühe kaarega üle Aire jõe, 105 jalad, laius ja üks üle Leedsi ja Liverpooli kanali, pikkusega 70 jalga, ja talasild üle Leedsi ja Bradfordi raudtee, millel on kaks ava, kõik 70 jalga. Nende tööde müüritise teostas andekas töövõtja härra Geo. Thomson ja härra Robti rauatöö. Crosland, Bradford. Järgmine raske töö on kaldsild üle Leedsi ja Birstali tee, mille pikkus ulatub väljakule 35 jalga, kaldu 62 jalga ja kolmekümne nelja ja poole kraadise nurga all. See on kõige ilusam ehitis ja teeb suurt tunnustust mitte ainult selle projekteerinud insenerile, vaid ka töövõtjatele, härrad J. ja R. Crawshaw. Selle lepingu järgmine oluline sild on Beestonis kaldsild 40 kraadise nurga all ja see jagunemine, mis on olnud härra John Hendersoni võimsa järelevalve all, suletakse Churwelli kohal viaduktiga maantee, mis koosneb kuuest 40 jala pikkusest kaarest. Morley tunnel on kõige raskem töö liini keskosas. Selle on teostanud kogenud tunnelid, härrad Shaw, Nowell ja Hattersley, hr Rontoni juhtimisel, CE. Pikkus on 3370 jardi, laius rööpa tasemel 24 jalga, kõrgus 23 jalga   ja vooderdatud müüritise. See tunnel on valminud peaaegu uskumatult lühikese 21 kuuga. Liin kulgeb edasi sügavate lõikude ja kõrgete muldkehade kaudu, kuni see ühineb Dewsbury divisjonilepinguga, mille võtsid vastu kauaaegsed töövõtjad härrad J. ja R. Crawshaw ning kes on tuntud oma töö olulisuse poolest. Union Milli viadukt on selle rajooni esimene suur töö: see koosneb 18 kaarest, mille laius on 30 jalga ja mille vahelt lahkub raske kivi lõikamine Hanging Heatoni juures, ning lööb korraga silma inimese jõu ja leidlikkusega. Rippuvat Heatoni teed ületas teelt märkimisväärse kõrgusega sirge talasild ja liin kulgeb Dewsbury viaduktile, mis koosneb 10 kaarest, igaüks 45 jalga, lisaks 80 meetri laiusele Batley pöördteele. Odderi jõge läbib rauast kaarsild, mis koosneb kahest avausest, millest igaühe pikkus on 100 jalga, ja kanalit läbib sarnane ainult ühe avaga sild. Jõe ja kanali vahele tehakse ettepanek selle joone alt läbida West Riding Union Dewsbury Branch ja järelikult ehitatakse selleks sirge talasild. Läbi Dewsbury linna on erinevatel tänavatel lausa kuus -kaheksa talasilda ja liiga palju kiita ei saa andekat inseneri härra J. L. Carstairsi, kellel on olnud selle jaotuse suund. Kõrgeim muldkeha on 60 jalga ja sügavaim lõikamine 70 jalga. Lühidalt, kogu rida on üks jätkuv tükk rasket inseneriteadust, millega väljapaistev ja lugupeetud peainsener härra Grainger on end jäädvustanud. . '


Leedsi raudteejaam

Leedsi raudteejaam on pearaudteejaam, mis teenindab Leedsi keskset äripiirkonda Inglismaal Lääne -Yorkshire'is. Leeds City jaam on Ühendkuningriigis väljaspool Londonit suuruselt teine. See teenindab umbes 110 000 reisijat päevas. Jaama haldab Network Rail ja sellel on 17 platvormi. 1938. aastal avatud jaama on kaks korda ümber ehitatud, 1967. ja 2002. aastal.

Leedsi raudteejaam ajalugu

Leedsi raudteejaam moodustati kahe jaama, Wellingtoni ja New Stationi (avatud 1846. ja 1869. aastal) ühendamisel. Wellingtoni jaam muudeti osaliselt maatükkide depooks. 1962. aastal liideti jaamaga ka Briti raudteemaja, mida praegu tuntakse linnamajana.

Jaama täiendav remont toimus 1967. aastal, kui linnajaamast sai Leedsi peamine teenindusjaam ja kogu liiklus keskjaamast suunati selle poole. Mitmed 100-aastased sillad, mis kulgesid üle Leedsi ja Liverpooli kanali, vahetati välja ning renoveerimise käigus ehitati uus saal ja täiesti uus katus. Sel ajal teenindas jaam 12 operatsiooniplatvormiga aastas 2,75 miljonit reisijat.

Liikluse suurenemisega tehti aastatel 1999–2002 ulatuslik ümberehitustöö. Ümberehitamine, millele viidatakse kui Leedsi esimesele, lõi jaama lääneotsa poole täiendavaid lähenemisradu. Samuti suurendati platvormide arvu 12 -lt 17. Uued platvormid ehitati jaama lõunapoolsesse otsa.

Samuti avati uuesti põhjaküljel asuv hüljatud maatükkide depoo. Lisaks vahetati välja rajad, punktid ja signaalid ning ehitati klaaskatus algse metallist varikatuse asemele. Ehitati uus jalakäijate sild, mitmekorruseline parkla ja uus jaama sissepääs, põhjapoolne koridor renoveeriti ja kaubandusrajatisi laiendati.

2008. aastal asendati inimeste juhitud piletikontroll automaatsete piletiväravatega. Kuigi väravad avati oktoobriks, takistasid selle toimimist tõsised vead, sealhulgas kehtetu piletite aktsepteerimine.

Aastail 2008-2009 teenindas jaam aastas rohkem kui 24,299 miljonit reisijat.

Leedsi jaama asukoht

Jaam asub Uue jaama tänaval Linnaväljaku lõuna suunas. Aire jõe kohale ehitatud jaamast saab sõita Londonisse, Bristoli, Plymouthi, edelasse, Nottinghami, Birminghami ja Inglise Midlandsi. Lisaks Yorkshire'i kohalikele ja piirkondlikele paikadele pakub jaam ühendust Newcastle'i, Yorki, Edinburghi ja Kirde, Manchesteri ja Liverpooli ning Loode, Hulli, Selby ja Doncasteriga. See toimib terminalina rongidele, mis sõidavad liinil Settle to Carlisle, ja on ka metroo pendelrongide võrgu sõlmpunkt.

Leedsi jaama rajatised

Leedsi jaam on varustatud mitmete võimalustega, nagu imikute hooldus, Briti transpordipolitsei büroo, fotokabiinid, esmaabi ja sularahapunkt. Jaamas on ka ooteruum esmaklassi piletiomanikele, pagasi- ja kadunud vara tsoon, trollipunkt, telefonid, taksod, postkast ja liftid.

Jaama edasised arengud

Alates 2010. aastast on plaanis ehitada Leedsi jaama uus lõunapoolne sissepääs. Network Rail töötab koostöös Metroga välja skeemi, mis võimaldaks ühendada Leedsi jaamast linna lõunatsooni, kus on eluruumide kasv tõusnud.

Laiendatakse jaama läänepoolset jalgteed ning Aire jõe osalisele sillale paigaldatakse trepid, eskalaatorid ja liftid.

Mõlemat jõge ühendav sild võimaldab reisijatel pääseda Little Neville'i tänavale või linna Holbecki piirkonda. Uus lõunapoolne sissepääs on kavas valmida 2012.

Leedsi jaama esisele väljakule ehitatakse jalgrattapunkt. Kavandatav rajatis koosneb kahest korrusest ja tagab järelevalvega ja turvalise parkimiskoha ligikaudu 300 tsükli jaoks. Plaanis on valmida 2010. aastal, rajatis varustatakse letialaga, väikeste töökodade ja personaliga. Välja arvatud päevasel ajal, on tsüklipunkt mehitamata ja seda toetab turvaline väljaspool tööaega juurdepääsusüsteem.


Transpennine'i marsruudi uuendamine

Transpennine Route Upgrade (TRU) on mitme miljardi naela suur ümberkujundav pikaajaline raudteeinfrastruktuuri programm, mis parandab ühenduvust põhjas.

See toetab majanduskasvu põhjas ja pakub tõelist kasu reisijatele ja kogukondadele selle pöördelise raudteeäärse ääres.

Manchesterist Stalybridge'i/Rochdale'i inseneritöö

31. juulist kuni 15. augustini 2021 töötame päeval ja öösel, et uuendada raudtee põhilõike ja uuendada raudteesildu, et parandada töökindlust.

See töö toimub Manchester Victoria jaamast ida pool, mõjutades kõige enam teenuseid Stalybridge'i ja Rochdale'i. See tähendab, et see mõjutab ka rännakuid mööda Calder Valley joont Manchesteri ja sealt välja.

Lisateavet ja reisiplaane leiate aadressilt Manchesteri täiustused lehel.

Marsruudi kohta

76-miiline Transpennine'i raudtee, mis ulatub üle Põhja-Inglismaa Yorki ja Manchesteri vahel Leedsi ja Huddersfieldi kaudu, teenindab 23 jaama, läbib ja uppub 285 silla ja viadukti alla, läbib kuus miili tunnelitest ja üle 29 raudteeülesõidu.

TRU muudab selle liini suure jõudlusega ja usaldusväärseks raudteeks reisijatele, kellel on suurem täpsus, rohkem ronge ja paremaid sõiduaegu. Projekti ulatus tähendab, et rongiteenused plaanivad katkestusi, mis võimaldavad tööd teha, kuid oleme võtnud endale kohustuse hoida reisijad rongis võimalikult sageli, õigeaegselt ja mugavalt liikumas.

Juulis 2020 teatas valitsus 589 miljoni naela suurusest lisarahastusest programmi kiireks käivitamiseks, et võimaldada lepingute sõlmimine järgmisel suvel Greater Manchesteri projekteerimistegevuse ja inseneritööde etapi jaoks.

Teeme transpordiministeeriumiga koostööd Transpennine'i marsruudi uuendamise üksikasjade osas. Rajaosadel aga tehakse varajast tööd koos muude tegevustega, nagu taimestiku majandamine, mõõdistamine ja ühendite rajamine.

Kus me töötame

Yorkist Fentoni kirikusse

Meie töö Yorki ja Church Fentoni vahel hõlmab Yorki ja Church Fentoni vahelise piiri elektrifitseerimist.

Huddersfield - Westtown (Dewsbury)

31. märtsil 2021 esitasime transpordi- ja tööseaduse korralduse (TWAO) taotluse transpordiministeeriumile Huddersfield - Westtown (Dewsbury) skeemi jaoks.

Kogu selle kaheksa miili pikkuse marsruudilõigu jooksul teeme ettepaneku kahekordistada radade arvu kahelt neljale, elektrifitseerida Huddersfieldist Dewsburyni ja teha suuri täiustusi neljas jaamas-Huddersfield, Deighton, Mirfield ja Ravensthorpe, kus meil on samuti vaja eraldada Leedsisse/sealt väljuvad liinid Wakefieldi suunduvatest ja sealt väljuvate liinide vahel kas silla või tunneliga.

Lisateave TWAO rakenduse, loetletud ehitusloa taotluste ning kõigi plaanide ja dokumentide kohta.

Manchesterist Stalybridge'i

Suur -Manchesteri raudteeinfrastruktuuri uuendatakse sel suvel. Töö on osa varajastest ettevalmistustest raudtee elektrifitseerimiseks ja signaalimiseks ning Ashtoni kaudu Manchester Victoria ja Stalybridge'i vahelise raja uuendamiseks.

Rajaäärseid vaiatöid on alustatud tulevaste mastide ja elektrijuhtmete toetamiseks.

Töö, mida teeme

Marsruudi hindamise (küsitluse) töö

Oma projekteerimise abistamiseks peame koguma palju teavet ja andmeid raudtee kohta, mis tähendab, et meie meeskonnad uurivad kõike alates sildade ja tunnelite seisukorrast kuni raja all olevate kommunaalteenuste ja teenuste kontrollimiseni.

Meie hindamistöö kohta saate rohkem lugeda, laadides alla meie kasuliku infolehe.

Taimestiku majandamine

Osana meie tööst ohutu ja usaldusväärse raudtee säilitamiseks ning Transpennine'i marsruudi uuendamise ettevalmistamisel puhastavad meie spetsialistid töövõtjad Yorki ja Manchesteri vahelise raudteemaastiku taimestikku.

See taimkatte hooldustöö hõlmab puude, põõsaste ja põõsaste puhastamist kuni 6,5 meetri kauguselt jooksujoonelt ning võrguraudteel asuvaid puid, mis võivad langeda infrastruktuurile.

Meie taimkatte haldamise töö kohta saate rohkem lugeda meie veebisaidilt Taimkatte juhtimine selgitatud lehel.

Ehitusühendid

Trassi strateegilistes punktides oleme ehitanud mitmeid ajutisi ehituskomplekse. Need ühendid on piirkonnas töötavate raudteetöötajate tegevuse aluseks, pakkudes hädavajalikke heaolu ja seadmete hoiustamise võimalusi.

Pidage meeles, et kuigi need ühendid on paigas, peaksid elanikud ootama piiratud häireid, kuid tehakse kõik endast olenev, et hoida müra absoluutselt minimaalsena, eriti üleöö.

Võta meiega ühendust

Kui teil on Transpennine'i marsruudi uuendamise või sellega seotud skeemide kohta kommentaare või küsimusi, võtke ühendust meie 24-tunnise võrguraudtee riikliku abitelefoniga telefonil 03457 11 41 41 või külastage meie ühendust


Manchesteri ja Leedsi raudtee - ajalugu

SKIPTON KOLONI - LÜHI AJALUGU

Skipton-Colne & lsquobranch & rsquo ehitamine oli algatus, mis sündis Penniinide idaosas Leedsi ja Bradfordi raudtee (L & ampB) pikendusena, kuigi see muutuks osaks Trans-Pennine'i marsruudist, kui see liitus Ida-Lancashire'i raudteega Colne juures.

Skipton-Colne'i liini päritolu on pärit Põhja-Midlandi raudteelt, mis avanes Derbyst Masborough (Rotherham) 11. mail 1840 ja seejärel Leedsi (Hunslet Lane) 1. juulil 1840. See ettevõte ühines Midlandi maakondadega ja Birmingham & amp; Derby Junction raudteed, moodustades 10. mail 1844. Midland Railway (MR). MR -st sai üks Suurbritannia tähtsamaid raudtee -ettevõtteid, mille võrk ulatus Londonist, Dorsetist ja Lõuna -Walesist Šotimaa piirini.

Leedsi ja Bradfordi raudtee järgnes Aire jõe orule ja Leedsi ja Liverpooli kanalile lääne suunas Leedsist Shipleyni, kus see pööras lõunasse Bradfordi. Ettevõte asutati parlamendi seadusega 4. juulil 1844 ning liin ehitati peaaegu täpselt kahe aastaga ja avati ametlikult 30. juunil 1846. Leedsis ühendati liin Leedsi MR & rsquos Hunslet Lane terminaliga lühikese kannus ja ühendussilmus Holbecki veeteel ja kanali ristmikul. 1844. aasta seadus anti eeldusel, et Bradfordi terminalist Halifaxi kaudu ehitatakse juurdeehitus Calderi orus asuva Manchesteri ja Leedsi raudteega (M & ampL). Vältides siin kõrvalepõikeid 1840. aastate raudteepoliitikasse, tundus novembris 1845 kõik ette nähtud sellise pikenduse jätkamiseks ning ka L & ampB ja M & ampL ühendamiseks. Ajalugu pidi aga valima teistsuguse kursi.

Aastal 1844 avaldas Lancashire & amp; Yorkshire Junction Railway (L & ampYJR) prospekti liinile, mis ühendab kavandatud Blackburn & amp; Prestoni raudtee Shipley L & ampB -ga, ja see läheneb Colne'i ja Airedale'i kaudu. Nagu eespool märgitud, oli L & ampB -l oma plaan laiendada Calderi orgu läände ja kui L & ampYRJ ja L & ampB esindajad kohtusid, et näha, kas on võimalik kokkuleppele jõuda, siis edusamme ei toimunud. Juulis 1844 pöördusid Skiptoni linnaelanikud ja Blackburn & amp; Prestoni raudtee L & ampB poole, et kaaluda oma marsruudi pikendamist Shipleyst loodesse Skiptoni kaudu Colne'i. Esialgu jäeti soovitus kõrvale, kuid septembris L & ampB leebus, tunnistades, et see liin nurjab L & ampYJR-i plaanid ehitada oma marsruut Shipleysse ja lõpp-ristmik viimase ettevõtte ja rsquose kavandatud liiniga Colne'is oleks kasulik link kiiresti arenevasse tööstuspiirkonda.

Tulles tagasi novembrisse 1845, kui L & ampB ja M & ampL liitmine tundus tõenäoline, tekitas see korraldus ärevust L & ampYJR -i järeltulijale Ida -Lancashire'i raudteele (ELR), kes võitis Colne'is palju vahetusteed, kui see liiklus kulges hoopis M & ampL Calder Valley marsruudi kaudu . ELR-i vastus oli pakkuda välja Ida-Lancashire'i ja Airedale'i raudtee Colne'ist Steetoni, mis ühineks teise kavandatava raudteega (Wharfedale raudtee), et tagada marsruut Leeds & amp; Thirski ja seega Kirde-Inglismaale. Colne'i ja Steetoni vahel on üks hõredalt asustatud kõrge nõmm, mida kohapeal tuntakse samblana, mis tekitaks probleeme, ning tehti ettepanek kasutada & lsquoatmospheric & rsquo veojõudu ning kasutada ka Lõuna -Devoni, Londoni, Croydoni ja Dublini ning Kingstowni liinidel , mis kõik jätsid selle kiiresti ebapraktiliseks. Kuna sündmused selgusid, ei olnud Colne'i ja Steetoni vaheline liin ehitatud tänu L & ampB ja M & ampL vahel puhkenud tülile, süüdistades esimese direktori viimase direktorit kokkulepetest kõrvale kaldumises L & ampB aktsionäride kahjuks. L & ampB - üks ettevõtetest, milles raudtee -ettevõtja, & lsquoRailway King & rsquo George Hudson oli huvitatud, pakuti seejärel rendile Hudson & rsquos MR -le, lubades aktsionäridele kasu saada, ja see jõustus 26. augustil 1846 koos L & ampB -ga saades täielikult MR -ile 24. juulil 1851. Seega oli Midlandi raudtee Colne'i jõudnud.

Liin Shipleyst Keighleyni avati avalikele teenustele 16. märtsil 1847 ja lõik Skiptoni suunas avati umbes kuus kuud hiljem, 8. septembril. Algne Skiptoni jaam asendati 30. aprillil 1876 ühe 10 keti (220 jad) põhja pool.

Leping Skiptoni ja Colne vahelise liini jaoks (& lsquoThorntoni leping & rsquo) sõlmiti 9. septembril 1846 härra G Boulton & amp Co hinnaga 67 000 naela. Augustis 1848 jõuti East Lancashire'i ja Leeds & amp; Bradfordi vahel kokkuleppele, et iga ettevõte töötab Colne'iga oma liinil ja et Colne'is on ühine jaam, mille L & ampB ehitab koos kaheteelise mootoriga.

Skipton-Colne liin avati 2. oktoobril 1848 millele järgnes ELR & rsquos jätkamine Burnley'sse 1. veebruaril 1849. 24. juuli 1851. aasta seaduse kohaselt sai Leeds & amp; Bradfordi raudtee, sealhulgas Shipley-Colne'i laiendus, Midlandi raudteefirma osaks. Ida-Lancashire'i raudtee neeldus Lancashire & amp; Yorkshire'i raudteel 13. augustil 1859. Alates 1856. aastast lubati LYR-rongidel sõita üle Skipton-Colne'i liini, 1. juuli 1884. aasta sõiduplaanis on näidatud kaks marsruuti kasutavat LYR-reisirongi.

Teised Skiptonist kiirgavad marsruudid avati alateadmata:

Skipton-Ingleton 30. juulil 1849
Clapham-Lancaster 1. juuni 1850 (teenuste alustamise kuupäev)
Ingleton-Low Gill 16. september 1861 (reisijad)
Skipton-Ilkley 16. mail 1888
Grassington 30. juulil 1902

Puuvillast töötavast linnast Barnoldswickist jäi mööda Skipton-Colne liin, mis kulges selle asemel läbi Earby, umbes 1 ja 12 miili ida pool. Earby linnast Barnoldswicki asuvale harule lubati 12. augusti 1865. aasta seadusega ja see avati 8. veebruaril 1871. Ristmik oli vastavalt põhjasuunaline, pakkudes otsest sõitu Barnoldswicki ja selle naabruses asuvate Earby ja Skiptoni naabrite vahel. Colne Lancashire'is.

Sild üle Aire jõe Skiptoni lähedal Colne'i harul 1960ndate keskel Broughton Roadi poole vaadates. See on lammutatud.
Foto autor G Tonks

1873. aastal tehti ettepanek paigaldada loodekõver Skiptoni põhja ristmikule, kus Colne'i haru lahknes Skiptoni ja Lancasteri joonest, moodustades kolmnurkse ristmiku, kuid sellest ei tulnud midagi välja.

Muud ambitsioonikamad projektid oleksid mõjutanud Skipton-Colne'i liini olekut ja liiklust. Üks sellistest oli Blackburn, Clitheroe & amp; Northwest Junction raudtee, mille kohta 27. juulil 1846 saadi seadus Blackburnist (Daisyfieldi ristmik) Clitheroe, Chatburni ja Long Prestoni (& lsquolittle & rsquo Loode-Skipton-Ingletoni ristmikule) kohta. /Lancasteri liin) koos teise marsruudiga Elslacki Skipton-Colne liinil. Sellest skeemist saadi ainult liin Blackburn-Clitheroe-Chatburn, mida pikema aja järel laiendati Hellifieldi. 1860ndate keskel oli teine ​​ebaõnnestunud projekt Fleetwood, Preston & amp; West Riding Junction Railway, mis oleks lahkunud Grimsarghi Longridge'i filiaalist ja jätkanud Clitheroe kaudu, et liituda Skipton-Colne liiniga Elslackis.

14. augustil 1890 saadi parlamendi seadus liinile, mis oleks pakkunud Colne ida-lääne ühenduse. See oli Loode keskraudtee Penworthamist (Prestonist edelas) Whalley, Colne'i ja Keighleyni ning see on näidatud 1893. aasta Airey & rsquose kaardil kavandatuna. Sõltumatu, majanduslikult raskustes olev Lääne-Lancashire'i raudtee (Preston-Southport) algatas selle skeem, mille Biddle (Prestoni raudteed 1989) kirjeldab kui & lsquoa madcap projekti, mille eesmärk on luua uus marsruut Loode- ja Kirde-Inglismaa vahel ning teha liin, mis nõuaks väga rasket tehnikat kogu mägisel maal, et ühendada Bradford, Halifax ja Keighley otse Prestoni ja Liverpooliga, kasutades Lääne Lancashire Penworthami ja Southport & rsquo vahel. Projekt loobuti 1893. aasta seadusega. Lääne -Lancashire'i raudtee neelas LYR 1897. aastal.

Ekskursioonirongid kasutasid sageli Skipton-Colne'i liini. Binns (2008) sisaldab ajakavasid ja kasutusjuhendeid mitmete 1880ndate aastate alguse ekskursioonide jaoks, mille sihtkohtadeks on näiteks Yorki võistlused, pantomiim Bradfordis, Scarborough'is ja Hawesis (Wensleydale).

TAGASTAMINE JA SULETUS
Skipton-Colne liin ei saavutanud mõnede teiste & lsquotrans-Pennine & rsquo liinide tähtsust, näiteks Calderi oru ja Standedge'i liinid Leedsi ja Manchesteri vahel või Woodhead Sheffieldi ja Manchesteri vahel, hoolimata selle strateegilisest positsioonist suurte ja jõukate vahel suurtest Lancashire'i linnadest (Preston, Blackburn, Accrington, Burnley, Bury) ja Leedsi, Bradfordi ja Keighley suurematest ratsutamiskeskustest ning selle ilmsetest eelistest on lihtsad kallakud ja puuduvad pikad tunnelid või suured viaduktid. See, et liinid ja rsquos ei saanud reisijate peamiseks marsruudiks, ei olnud Colne'i jagatud halduse tulemus. Algusest peale pidid reisijad tavaliselt rongi vahetama Colne'is Ida -Lancashire'i (hiljem Lancashire & amp; Yorkshire ja alates 1922. aastast London & amp; Northwest: LNWR) ja Leeds & amp; Bradfordi (hilisem Midland) vahel ning rongid ei olnud alati mugavalt ajastatud. 1923. aasta Big Four & rsquo rühmitus, kui Midland ja LNWR said uue Londoni, Midlandi ja Šotimaa raudtee (LMS) osaks, oleks võinud olla võimalus lõpetada tava, et Colne'i liinid käsitletakse kahe haruna, kuid Colne leidis end nüüd piirijaam LMSi Kesk- ja Midlandi diviisi vahel ning kaks diviisi ei soovinud omavahel koostööd teha. Seetõttu pidid reisijad Colnes siiski rongi vahetama. Binns märgib, et sageli väljub Midland Divisioni rong vahetult enne & lsquoLanky & rsquo saabumist, jättes reisijad hüppama jaamast mäest üles, kust väljusid Ribble'i bussid Skiptoni. Sarnast ajaloolist piiri hoiti pärast rühmitamist Kelsos (Roxburghshire, Šotimaa), kus endise Põhja-Briti marsruudi St Boswellsist ja vana Kirde-Tweedmouthist pärit rongid jätkasid peatumist, kuigi see oli läbiv jaam.

1. jaanuaril 1948 sai Inglismaa ja Walesi LMS -võrgustik Briti uue raudtee (BR) Londoni Midlandi piirkonnaks (LM). Uue režiimi ajal varises Colne'i nähtamatu piir varsti ja 1950. aasta suvegraafik näitas Colne'i kaudu iga päev mitmeid teenuseid, kuigi mõned rongid igast suunast alustasid või lõpetasid oma reisi. BR tegi jaamades vähe parandusi ja tõepoolest sulges Elslacki 1952. aastal ja Foulridge'i 1959. aastal. Läheduses asuv jaam oli tagasihoidlikult kaasajastatud, sisseehitatud BR (LM) nimetahvlid asendasid LMS-id, kuid tundub, et paigaldatud on ainult üks BR-totemi nimesilt , ja see oli puust näide, võib -olla mitteametlikult toodetud BR -i töötaja poolt, kes imestas, miks Barnoldswicki neile anti, samas kui Earby polnud. Earby jäi gaasiküttega, samal ajal kui Thornton-in-Craven säilitas oma LMS-nimetahvlid ja õlivalgustuse.

Kohalike Skipton-Colne rongide auruga vedamine andis alates 4. jaanuarist 1960 teed diiselmootoritele (DMU) ja alates 6. märtsist 1961 võtsid DMU-d üle Skipton-Colne-Manchester reisijateveoteenused, välja arvatud Skipton-Liverpool rong ja selle tagasipöördumine töötavad.

Vaadates 1965. aasta märtsis Earby jaama kõnniteelt põhja poole. Klassi 113 Cravens DMU, ​​mis suundub Manchester Victoria poole, seisab alumise platvormi juures. Jaam oli kuni sulgemiseni gaasivalgusega. Esiplaanil on üks standardpaigaldatud Sugg-i isenditest ja see on stiil, mida soosib BR Londoni Midlandi piirkond. Kaugelt paistab kaubamaja.
Foto DJ Mitchell

Samal ajal Briti raudteede ümberkujundamine (& lsquoBeeching Report & rsquo) 1963. aastal soovitas loobuda endistest LYR-liinidest Accringtonist ja Bacupist Bury ja Manchesterisse ning Copy Pit'i marsruudist (Rose Grove-Todmorden/Hebdeni sild). Colne'i piirkonnas pakuti välja ainult sulgemised Barnoldswick Filiaal Earby ja Thornton-in-Craveni jaamast. Aruannet kommenteerides juhtkiri Nelsoni juht (29. märts) tundis kergendust, et kohalikud linnad ei lahku & ldquorailway autobahns & rdquo & ndash suursugusest uuest ajast täielikult ja mitte ainult, niikuinii, ja hellip Nelsoni, Colne'i, Brierfieldi ja Earby jaamad, anakronistlikud ja lagunenud, kuigi need võivad jääda. piiratud kasutuses. Kuid märgid näitavad, et neist saab vähe rohkem kui väiksemaid peatusi, mille tähtsus kohalikul liinil väheneb. See osutus kolme esimese jaama puhul, mis mõne aasta jooksul muutusid töötajateta (kuid Earby pidi sulgema). Juhtkiri lõpetas arvamusega, et riiklikult dr Beeching & rsquos ettepanekud olid & lsquoökonoomiliselt edumeelsed & rsquo koos anomaaliaga, et puhtalt kohalikus tähenduses & lsquohere ja mujal saab neid pidada ainult tagasiulatuvaks & rsquo.

Kuigi Barnoldswicki filiaal tehti ametlikult ettepanekuks sulgeda 4. septembril 1964 ja teenus lõpetati 27. septembril 1965, tundub, et Thornton-in-Craven libises radari alla.

1967. aasta märtsis avaldasid transpordiministeerium ja Briti Raudteeamet ühiselt kaardi „British Railways Network for Development”: mitte parim näide kartograafiast! Paksud mustad jooned näitavad reisijatele ja kaubaveole või ainult reisijatele mõeldud jooni, õhukesed mustad jooned on ette nähtud ainult paksudeks hallideks joonteks, „praeguste tõendite kohaselt ei pakuta põhivõrku kaasamist”. See kaart näitab, et ainult Burnley-Colne (nimetuseta)-Skiptoni (nimetuseta) marsruut tagab reisijatele juurdepääsu Skiptonile koos marsruutidega Leedsi, Bradford Forsteri väljaku, Horton-in-Ribblesdale'i (Settle & amp; Carlisle'i piirkonnas) ja Grassingtoni säilitatakse ainult kaubaveoks. Kahe aasta jooksul, kaugeltki mitte ainsaks raudteereisijate marsruudiks Skiptoni, kavatseti Colne'i filiaal täielikult sulgeda.

Colne'i läbiva liini tulevik tundus kindel, kui tähelepanuväärselt tuvastati see 1967. aastal (koos Copy Pit'i marsruudiga & ndash, mis oli reisijatele tegelikult suletud alates 1965. aastast!) Osana & lsquoNetwork for Development & rsquo ja ainult Skiptoni jääval liinil Skiptonist Leedsi, Carlisle'i ja Lancasteri suletakse. Siiski tervikuna volte-nägu järgmisel aastal otsustati need kolm Skiptoni liini jätta ja selle asemel sulgeda marsruut Colne'ist. 20. detsembril 1968 avaldati ettepanek sulgeda liin Skipton-Colne ning vahepealsed jaamad Earby ja Thornton-in-Cravenis, mis jõustub 5. mail 1969, kui vastuväiteid ei esitata.

The Nelsoni juht 13. detsembril 1968, oodates ettepanekut, teatas, et Skipton-Colne'i liinil tekkis aastane nael 110 000 naela ja kahe nädala pärast lisati, et hinnanguline tulu oli vaid 6 000 naela. Kirde -Lancashire'i arengukomitee kaalus sulgemise ettepanekut ja lsquodeplorable & rsquo, kuid tunnistas, et tuleb avastada ja teada saada, kas liin on kasulik ja rsquo. Burnley linnavolikogu kartis, et sulgemine muudab Kirde-Lancashire'i viimastel aastatel tupiktänavaks SELRAP organisatsioon, kes kampaania Colne-Skiptoni liini taasavamise nimel & ndash on tunnistanud selle kohutava ennustuse majanduslikku reaalsust.

Sisse Craven Herald ja pioneer 3. jaanuaril 1969 tõi kavandatava sulgemise huvitav omadus esile iroonia, et Barnoldswicki nõukogu (Yorkshire'i lääneosa) rahanduskomitee oli hiljuti saanud British Raililt kaks teadet: üks teavitas neid BR & rsquose kavatsusest paigaldada Thorntoni kaasaegsed & lsquoomniticket & rsquo masinad -Craveni ja Earby jaamades, teine ​​oli tema ettepanek jaamad 5. mail sulgeda. Üks komisjoni liige muigas, et esimene neist masinatest väljastatud pilet võib olla ka viimane. Vastupidiselt Kirde-Lancashire'i sulgemise vastu tunduvale näilisele tugevusele märkis komisjoni liige G Hale & lsquothe, et kavandatud sulgemise & rsquo vastu pole protesti. Ta jätkas, & lsquo Peale kummalise inimese, kes soovis lapsevankrit transportida, tundub, et avalikkus on loobunud raudtee kasutamisest täielikult. Endorsing this opinion, Treasurer, Mr J C Roscow recollected that from time to time he had tried to count the passengers using the train between Skipton and Colne, but he &lsquocouldn&rsquot because there weren&rsquot any there were never more than one or two people on the two-coach trains&rsquo.

The public hearing of objections to the Skipton-Colne closure ended on 24 June 1969. Three days later a report was carried in Nelson Leader. Nelson and Colne MP David Waddington (later Lord Waddington) reflected that it was ironic that a proposal to sever the only remaining rai link between North-East Lancashire and Yorkshire (Blackburn to Hellifield having closed in 1962 and Rose Grove to Hebden Bridge/Todmorden in 1965) should be advanced at a time when everybody was paying lip service to the need for better communications between the area&rsquos towns and cities and the rest of the country as a prerequisite of economic growth. The hearing was told that no new road link between North-East Lancashire and the M6 motorway was envisaged in a recent Green Paper in the light of which further isolation of the area by the closure of the Skipton-Colne railway could deter individuals and industries to move to, or remain here the M65 was eventually opened during the 1980s and &rsquo90s between the M6 and the Colne, but its eastward extension over the &lsquoMoss&rsquo to join the Aire Valley Expressway has not been built. Specific developments which would benefit from the retention of the railway were brought to the attention of the hearing. One of these was the proposed Central Lancashire New Town (Preston / Leyland / Chorley) and the new Whitewalls Industrial Estate in Colne which needed easy communication with the West Riding. The isolation of North-East Lancs from such places as Leeds, Bradford, York and Hull as well as Skipton itself was emphasised. Mr R Pensam, Chief Assistant Solicitor to Burnley Council, drew attention to the Royal Commission Report on Local Government which recommended the establishment of a new administrative authority to extend from south of Burnley almost as far north as Skipton. Within this new area (which approximates to the modern Borough of Pendle and includes land historically in Lancashire and the West Riding) he pointed out that &lsquocomprehensive development of the whole area&rsquo was envisaged and &lsquothe lack of passenger rail services going through the area of the authority would be a very serious handicap &hellip if retained its use would increase&rsquo. His words were to be prophetic: fifty years on the contrast between the economic health of Airedale and the less-favoured Pendle is evident. A further area of objection concerned the difficulties for recreational travel that would be caused by the closure of the Skipton-Colne railway. West Riding people wishing to travel to the popular West Lancashire coastal resorts would no longer have easy access by rail. The recreational facilities of the Yorkshire Dales would likewise become difficult of access to the people of East Lancashire&rsquos industrial towns. Objectors pointed out that these impediments to travel were unacceptable at a time when the government was stressing the increased demand for, and economic importance of, leisure facilitiese.

Heslaker Lane bridge near Skipton, crossed by the Colne Branch, adjoined the larger bridge (left) over the River Aire. This view is south-eastwards in the mid 1960s both bridges have
since been demolished.
Photo by G Tonks

The closure of the railway was on condition that road motor services could provide an acceptable replacement. A E Calne, Traffic Manager of Ribble Motor Services (also representing Burnley, Colne and Nelson Joint Transport) confirmed to the hearing that an hourly bus service was provided on weekdays (half hourly on Saturday) between Skipton and Colne and an hourly service was extended to Manchester, so it was possible to travel from Skipton through Thornton-in-Craven, Earby, Colne, Nelson and Brierfield to Manchester without changing the X43 bus route ran parallel to the railway and stopped at Skipton and Earby stations and in the village of Thornton-in-Craven. Opponents of closure had complained that if the line were to close a ¾-mile walk faced passengers transferring between Colne bus and railway stations as the X43 called at the railway station only on the Manchester to Skipton journey, for passengers to alight, but did not call when travelling in the opposite direction. Mr Calne stated that a stop would be introduced at Colne railway station. He also thought that there would be no need to provide extra buses. In connection with the role of buses as alternative to rail between Skipton and Colne, Mr G H Firth of Earby expected that passengers travelling beyond Colne would be unlikely to change from bus to rail. He also questioned whether buses could cope with passengers at peak times as on several occasions he had been unable to board a full bus and had to wait for the next one.

On 19 December 1969 Fred Mulley, the Minister of Transport, gave his consent to the closure which was to take place for both passenger and goods traffic on 2 February 1970. Perhaps the inevitability of this decision explains the silence of Nelson Leader at the news. On 9 January the newspaper carried the formal announcement of closure.

The Nelson Leader (6 February 1970) carried an article on the closure of the Skipton-Colne line: &lsquoCrowded out on the Last Train&rsquo. On Saturday 1 February there was standing room only with over a hundred people crammed into the two-car train from Colne &lsquoto the surprise of the small number of regular passengers who had expected their last trip to pass without incident&rsquo. More people joined the train at Earby where alighting passengers remained on the platform to wave farewell. The final timetabled passenger train on the line was the 20.58 from Skipton to Manchester. This, too, was filled to capacity and it drew out of the station &lsquoto the accompaniment of cheers and the whir of ciné-cameras as photographers&rsquo flash bulbs illuminated the scene&rsquo. Aboard the train members of the Keighley & Worth Valley Railway Society used the opportunity to distribute publicity material for the revived Oxenhope Branch. At Earby there were more flash bulbs and farewell cheers, and at Colne the compassionate railway officials permitted the passengers from the final train to retain their tickets as souvenirs.

The following day a chartered DMU excursion ran between Skipton and Colne (return). With indecent haste, as soon as this train arrived back at Skipton the junction points were severed. Dates of track-lifting between Skipton North Junction and Colne have not been found, but Binns states that after closure the tracks were &lsquosoon lifted&rsquo.

Binns states that after closure the tracks were &lsquosoon lifted&rsquo. The earliest reliably-dated photographic evidence indicates that the tracks had been lifted by January 1974.

On 28 August 1942 a morning coal empties train is passing Thornton-in-Craven from Rose Grove to Stourton (south of Leeds) and it was to return that afternoon with a full load. These are the days before nationalisation of the British coal industry and the numerous private coal wagons are a source of interest. The loco No.9571 is a Fowler-designed Class 7F 0-8-0 built at the LMS Crewe works in October 1929. Renumbered 49571 by British Railways she was withdrawn from 27B, Aintree shed, in June 1951 and cut up at Horwich works later that month.
Photo by M N Clay from late Donald Binns collection

The British Rail London Midland Region timetable issued in May 1970 indicated that the Skipton-Colne service had been withdrawn, but the accompanying map which purported to show the railway network on 5 January 1970 misleadingly showed the line to have closed a month before its actual demise.

The &lsquoclosure culture&rsquo in British Rail would not be expunged for several years, and there were suspicions that the abandonment of 11½ miles of this useful trans-Pennine route would be followed by the closure of the surviving stump from Colne to Burnley, and possibly beyond. These fears were given substance when in 1971 the extensive station facilities at Colne, now a terminus, were almost entirely demolished leaving only a single platform with a &lsquobus&rsquo shelter and an hourly train service. The final stretch of the truncated line, from Chaffers Siding (north-east of Nelson) to the Colne terminus was singled in 1971, followed in December 1986 by the route through Nelson, Brierfield and Burnley Central as far as Gannow Junction (Rose Grove). Since then the line has had a basic hourly weekday service (two-hourly on Sunday) operated by some of the oldest and poorest quality DMU stock on the national railway network. This is in stark contrast to the excellent electric train service between Leeds and Skipton which is among the busiest commuter railways in Britain.

Founded in 2001, SELRAP (Skipton East Lancashire Rail Action Partnership) is campaigning to reopen the Skipton to Colne railway line, as part of the rail network of the United Kingdom its motto is &lsquoConnecting communities across the North&rsquo. The campaign has attracted support from local MPs, councils, businesses and numerous members of the public with its strong economic case to restore the 11½-mile link. The reopened line would probably have one intermediate &lsquoWest Craven Parkway&rsquo station to serve Earby, Barnoldswick and the surrounding area.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SKIPTON-COLNE ROUTE
The Colne Branch followed the lowest altitude route (the &lsquoFoulridge Gap&rsquo) through the mid and south Pennines. This low watershed between the Aire and Ribble basins is about 500ft above sea level and it was already used by a turnpike and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, opened through the gap in 1796 and for the full distance between Leeds and Liverpool in 1816. The canal required a 1,640yd tunnel to cross the summit, but the railway was the only one that crossed the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire without a tunnel through the hills. Gradients between Skipton North Junction and Colne nowhere exceeded 1 in 141, and the summit near Foulridge was approached at 1 in 396 from Colne and 1 in 231 from Thornton-in-Craven.

Reflecting its origins from the Leeds end, travel on the &lsquobranch&rsquo was described as &lsquoUp&rsquo towards Skipton and &lsquoDown&rsquo towards Colne. Beyond Colne on the former East Lancashire / Lancashire & Yorkshire line the descriptions were reversed, &lsquoUp&rsquo being towards Preston/Manchester and &lsquoDown&rsquo towards Colne.

At its northern end the Colne Branch left the line to Lancaster, Ingleton and Carlisle at Skipton North Junction, soon crossing the River Aire on an iron bridge with masonry supports (now demolished) and following a route on a rising gradient of 1 in 141 at the edge of the Craven lowlands to Elslack station. A short distance before the next station, Thornton-in-Craven, a branch led northwards to serve Thornton Quarry and lime works, carried by a bridge over the old Skipton &ndashColne road and passing through a tunnel under the present A56.

Looking north-east towards Foulridge Viaduct over the Leeds & Liverpool Canal. The locomotive in LMS livery appears to be an ex-LYR Aspinall-designed Class 28 0-6-0.
Photo courtesy of Café Cargo, Foulridge

Until the administrative boundary changes in 1974 the line thus far was in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Lancashire was entered a short distance north of the village of Foulridge. The line was carried over the adjacent Leeds & Liverpool on a low iron viaduct resting on masonry piers (now demolished) before entering Foulridge station. Here the line reached its summit, the watershed between Earby Beck (draining into the Aire and ultimately the North Sea) and Pendle Water (draining into the Calder and ultimately the Irish Sea). At this point the canal dives into a 1,640yd tunnel but the railway, constructed 30 years after the canal had fully opened, was engineered to breast the summit without the need for a tunnel and with relatively gentle gradients all other railway routes across the south Pennines required tunnels to cross from east to west, some of them (such as Summit, Standedge, Totley, Cowburn and Woodhead) being of considerable length. The railway re-crossed the canal in its tunnel before reaching the town of Colne. A network of sidings announced the approach to Colne where the station was shared with the East Lancashire (later Lancashire & Yorkshire) company.

This picture is a rarity, taken during World War 2 when photography of British railway operations was prohibited and showing what Binns (2008) understood to be the only known appearance of this class of express locomotive on the Colne Branch. On 15 April 1942 at 11.06am &lsquoPatriot&rsquo Class 5XP 4-6-0 No.5528 is passing Thornton-in-Craven with a westbound (down) empty stock train of 1st and 3rd class brake composites, probably a diversion onto the West Coast main line routed via Colne because of the war. The Fowler-designed locomotive emerged from the LMS Derby works in April 1933. Carrying the name &lsquoR E M E&rsquo and renumbered 45528 by British Railways she was in service until January 1963 when she was withdrawn from 1A, Willesden shed, before being cut up at Crewe works two months later.
Photo by M N Clay from late Donald Binns collection

Last day ticket from Peter Noon. Timetables, timetable map, Network for Development map and Airey's map from Alan Young.

  • Binns, Donald Towards Lancashire: the Midland Railway&rsquos Skipton-Colne Extension (Author, 2008)
  • Clinker C R Clinker&rsquos register of closed passenger stations and goods depots (Avon Anglia 1978)
  • Earnshaw, Alan Pennine branch lines (Ian Allan, 1993)
  • Holt, Geoffrey O A regional history of the railways of Great Britain: Vol 10 (David & Charles, 1986)
  • Hurst, Geoffrey Register of closed railways 1948-1991 (Milepost Publications, 1992)
  • Joy, David A regional history of the railways of Great Britain: Volume 8 South & West Yorkshire (David & Charles, 1984)
  • Quick, Michael Railway passenger stations in Great Britain: a chronology (RCHS 2009)
  • OS Maps used are 1:10.560 (6") 1896

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Gradient Section from Chris Littleworth
Information about Thornton Quarry from D-Jay Ripley


HS2 is a northern railway too

The Cheshire town of Northwich might seem an odd place to start a discussion about the case for High Speed 2, the government's proposed fast rail link between London and (eventually) Manchester and Leeds. Between 7am and 8.30am each weekday, three trains leave Northwich to carry commuters the 30 miles or so to Manchester. Trouble is…only one actually gets there, the others unhelpfully decanting their passengers at Stockport.

As the old adage goes, 's…' sells, but the 's' in question is rarely 'suburban rail capacity'. Such an apparently mundane topic hardly sells newspapers nor gets the blogosphere a-quiver, but it is front and centre of the issues surrounding HS2's importance to the north. The Northwich case is just one of many examples of too many trains being squeezed on to too little railway and the railways around Leeds and Manchester remain a somewhat haphazard web of routes that have developed only piecemeal since the mid-19th century.

Ed Jacobs' astute investigation in the Guardian Northerner on June 22 into the current state of play regarding HS2 suggests that the project does not 'address the day to day transport problems' facing travellers across the north. He then poses four questions which the project's promoters could seek to answer, thereby heightening its relevance. I'll try to address them, but with the caveat that capacity and overcrowding issues are quite complex and nuanced.

1. What would High Speed Rail to northern England do to ease the UK's unenviable position of having the most expensive rail fares in Europe?

The main reason why Britain has such high rail fares is simple: government policy is that rail users should bear more of the cost of rail travel and taxpayers less in most European countries, the reverse is true. But HS2's great advantage is the capacity it brings – and not just for business travellers to London. More capacity means more trains and more seats. Those seats – whether on HS2 or on a more flexible legacy rail network – need to be filled, and pricing should reflect that. As capacity on the West Coast Main Line has grown in the past few years, average price paid per passenger has actually declined, helped by consumers' increased uptake of buy-ahead tickets. There is no reason why adding substantial extra capacity would not drive prices downwards – after all, this is the lesson from the aviation industry over the past 15 years. But equally we should beware of straw men – HS2 is not primarily designed to affect fares policy, it is about getting more passengers and freight on to the existing rail network.

2. How would the project address the problem of trains persistently running late?

Capacity again: removing some express services from the congested approaches to major rail hubs like Manchester Piccadilly and Leeds minimises the disparity between fast and slow services. There is mounting evidence that the busiest sections of our Victorian railway are struggling to cope: the West Coast Main Line, linking the northwest with London Euston, was the dubious beneficiary of a protracted and profoundly flawed £9.6bn modernisation, completed after 11 long years in 2009 (having run an astonishing 400% over budget). If the project itself demonstrated the spiralling cost of a 'patch and mend' policy, at least the route should be fit for modern needs now, right? Vale. The West Coast is Britain's least reliable main line by a significant margin – in one week in May, more than a third of Virgin Trains failed to reach their destinations within 10 min of schedule. Contrast that with High Speed 1 from London to the Channel Tunnel, where delays are typically measured in seconds, and the net spend by the taxpayer to build it was less than half that to refurbish the West Coast route.

3. Will HS2 do anything to relieve frequently overcrowded trains?

Yes, indirectly. Between now and HS2's arrival in Leeds and Manchester (which certainly could and should be earlier than the planned 2033) a significant package of enhancements to the regional rail network is planned under the £560m Northern Hub. These enhancements in the existing network should benefit local and regional users – but the risk is that, without a dedicated line, lucrative long-distance services would take up this extra headroom instead. This has already happened in Leeds, where the city's main station was substantially rebuilt only a decade ago. As one senior transport official in West Yorkshire told me in April:

Pontefract and Knottingley won't get a proper service into Leeds until we sort out the East Coast bottlenecks using HS2.

4. Would HS2 do anything about the train fare system which so many people cite as being too confusing?

It is worth noting that, while the ticketing system is indeed devilishly complex in places, passenger journeys across the country have grown by 23% in the past five years, so it can't be putting that many people off. But equally a better balance needs to be found for would-be HS2 users: many passengers now know to book ahead to get a better deal, but this then ties them to a specific train at a given time. This may not be realistic for a journey of, say, 45 minutes between Manchester and Birmingham.

An image of a green tunnel for the HS2 link. Photograph: Rail Link Engineering/HS2

Business leaders and local politicians are lobbying hard to secure the final tranche of funding for the Northern Hub programme, with a decision due next month. They are right to do so: it is the short term priority. But it is telling to note that, among the ten 'economic outputs' the package is designed to deliver, one is 'high speed rail to/from the south'. And that does not just mean London: it is widely under-appreciated that HS2 would halve the rail travel time between Leeds and Birmingham, for example. No alternative based on existing routes could match that – and tellingly, nobody has yet suggested one, to my knowledge.

But back to Northwich: it lost those morning commuter trains to Manchester in 2009 when extra fast trains to London were introduced the town was on the losing side of the £9.6bn gamble (and Northwich commuters weren't the only losers). Cancellation of HS2 raises the prospect of yet more patch and mend, on all three north-south rail axes that link our northern cities with the capital. Recent history shows that combined this could easily eat up a huge chunk of that oft-quoted £32bn.

We are lucky in the UK that a huge market of more than 30 million passengers per annum already exists, ready to transfer to HS2 when it opens. It is not a 'white elephant', nor is it about getting from London to Birmingham 'a bit faster', or even a Victorian revival. It is an essential part of delivering international-class infrastructure in the North. Unpopular as it may be in the short term, the government is right to press ahead.

Rochdale-born Nick Kingsley is Senior Editor of the industry journal Railway Gazette International. He blogs about high speed rail here.


Tee

The line climbed out of Manchester with an average gradient of 1 in 260 (0.38%) until it arrived at the summit and a 2,860 yards (2,620 m) long tunnel at Littleborough. From there it descended towards Normanton.

It used the North Midland's line to run into Leeds since Parliament had refused to sanction two parallel lines. Not an easy line to build, there were eight tunnels in all, mostly through very difficult rock, a hundred and sixteen bridges and long cuttings and embankments. One tunnel, that at Charlestown, had to be given up due its collapse and the continued instability of the ground. This entailed a diversion with some tight curves at variance with the norm for the line of 60 chains (130.62 m). Two large bridges were avoided by diverting the course of the River Calder. The rails were of 15 feet (4.6 m) lengths laid at a gauge of 4 ftى in (1,448 mm) with a mixture of stone blocks and, on the embankments, wooden sleepers.


Manchester and Leeds Railway - History

Notes: Manchester Exchange was situated on the London & North Western Railway&rsquos (LNWR) east and west route that connected Liverpool with Leeds. The first section of the route was the historic Liverpool & Manchester Railway (L&MR) which had opened in September 1830. At the time of opening the L&MR had its eastern terminus at Manchester Liverpool Road station but by the 1840s traffic had increased to such a degree that a new station was needed. The initial solution was to build a new section of line, the Hunts Bank Extension, to connect with the Manchester & Leeds Railway (MLR) at their Victoria station. The MLR had agreed to allow the L&MR to use platforms at Victoria.

Manchester Liverpool Road station closed on 4 May 1844, and from that date passenger services were extended to Victoria.

It was no surprise that the LYR gave priority to its own services at Manchester Victoria and, even though the station was expanded over the years, by the 1880s it was seriously congested and the LNWR was constantly frustrated. The solution was for the LNWR to seek powers to build its own station.

Manchester Exchange station opened partially on 30 June 1884 and fully in July 1885. It was actually located in the city of Salford but only a stone&rsquos throw away from central Manchester from which it was separated by the River Irwell. It lay immediately west of the LYR Manchester Victoria station which was on the other side of the Irwell and therefore within Manchester. Exchange station was elevated above street level being carried on brick arches. It was reached by an approach road from Victoria Street which spanned the River Irwell. Its main entrance was south of the line and consisted of a grand four-storey stone building flanked by other smaller structures. Within the main building were offices and refreshment rooms cloak rooms, toilets and further offices were in the other buildings.

To the east of the imposing frontage building was an access point for road vehicles. The station was provided with a trainshed roof of three arched sections which extended for almost the entire length of the platforms.

The station had five platforms, two of which were

Platforms 4 and 5 were on a long and wide island platform. A footbridge linked it to the terminus platforms and platform 3, but it also had a cab road that tunnelled under the line at the eastern end of the station and reached the platform by a sloping roadway. At the eastern end of the island platform, adjacent to the footbridge, were a parcels office and a ladies&rsquo waiting room.
The LYR main line between Bolton and Leeds passed by the north of Exchange station. At its western end, south of the line, were a turntable and stabling sidings for locomotives.

At the time of opening Manchester Exchange would have been served by trains between Liverpool and Manchester, trans-Pennine services via the LNWR route to Leeds, services running to and from North Wales, and services to London and to Scotland. There were also local trains to such destinations as Wigan and Bolton. The LNWR reached an agreement with the
Great Western Railway (GWR) which allowed that company to run services into Manchester Exchange thereby giving the GWR its only access to the city of Manchester. GWR express services reached Exchange via the joint LNWR/GWR line which connected Chester with Warrington from Warrington they ran over LNWR metals to Exchange.

During the latter part of the nineteenth century and into the early part of the twentieth the competition to attract passengers between Liverpool and Manchester was intense. Passengers had four choices: the Cheshire Lines Committee (CLC) between Manchester Central and Liverpool Central the LYR between Manchester Victoria and Liverpool Exchange and the LNWR between Manchester Exchange and Liverpool Lime Street and between Manchester London Road and Liverpool Lime Street via Warrington Bank Quay. The first three were the fastest and it was over these that each company introduced hourly express services which completed the journey in just over 40 minutes. The LNWR route from Exchange to Lime Street was the shortest but it faced very stiff competition from the CLC who had a very straight and fast line.

The December 1895 Bradshaw timetable listed main line departures from Manchester Exchange to Birmingham, Chester, Glasgow, Holyhead, Huddersfield, Leeds, Liverpool and London. Numerous local services operated including the weekday morning services shown in the table below.


Manchester and Leeds Railway

A Manchester and Leeds Railway foi uma companhia ferroviária do Reino Unido, que foi inaugurada em 1839, ligando Manchester com Leeds através da North Midland Railway, que juntava-se em Normanton. Sua rota atualmente forma o suporte principal da Caldervale Line.

Foi constituída por Ato do Parlamento em 1836, e com um segundo Ato em 1839, que autorizou a extensão do terminal original de Manchester na estação de Oldham Road [ 1 ] para se juntar à Liverpool and Manchester Railway, quando esta foi estendida até a estação de Hunt's Bank (mais tarde denominada Manchester Victoria). O Ato também autorizou ramais para Oldham e Halifax, com um desvio em Kirkthorpe. Dirigido por George Stephenson, seu engenheiro foi Thomas Longridge Gooch, um irmão de Daniel Gooch da GWR.

A linha foi inaugurada em 1839 até Littleborough, e de Normanton para Hebden Bridge em 1840. A seção final foi inaugurada com a conclusão do Summit Tunnel, realizada em 1841.

A linha tornou-se a principal constituinte da Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, que foi incorporada em 1847. Várias ferrovias já haviam sido absorvidas pela M&LR:


Re-open the Woodhead Line campaign for the re-opening of the Woodhead train line between Manchester and Sheffield:

• To reduce the environmental impact of transporting people and freight across the Southern Pennines.

• To create a means of access to the northern half of the Peak District National Park for non-car users, cyclists and the disabled.

• To create improved access to employment between the
conurbations of Longdendale and Greater Manchester and the Upper Don Valley and South Yorkshire.

• To restore the competitiveness of trans-pennine rail passenger journey times.

• To make rail-freight a more attractive option by providing a more direct route between the ports on the eastern and western sides of the country.

• To provide more ready access to high speed rail passenger rail services between Scotland, London and continental Europe.

• To improve the capacity and reliability of trans-Pennine rail services by creating an additional route to the Hope Valley Line.


Vaata videot: Raudselt koos tulevikku! Liitu meiega (Juuli 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Vudoshura

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  2. Akinobar

    Mind see ei häiri.

  3. Doran

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  4. Thatcher

    Täname abi eest selles küsimuses, seda lihtsam, seda parem ...

  5. Driscoll

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  6. Nisar

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