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Venemaal 1900

Venemaal 1900


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1900. aastal hõlmas Venemaa impeerium ligi 23 miljonit ruutkilomeetrit. Enamik 128 miljonist elanikkonnast olid slaavlased, kuid rahvusi oli üle 200. Mitmed neist rühmadest soovisid piirkondlikku autonoomiat ja see oli pideva poliitilise konflikti põhjuseks. Samuti elas Vene impeeriumis 5 miljonit juuti ja umbes 23 miljonit moslemit. Valitsuse venestamispoliitika (keelab kohalike keelte kasutamise ja religioossete kommete mahasurumise) tekitas palju pahameelt.

Peterburi oli 1 260 000 elanikuga Venemaa impeeriumi suurim linn. Teised suured linnad olid Moskva (1 040 000), Varssavi (680 000), Odessa (400 000), Lodz (310 000), Riia (280 000) ja Kiiev (250 000).

Enamik Vene impeeriumis elavatest inimestest olid Vene õigeusu kiriku liikmed. Aastal 1721 sai õigeusu kirikust valitsusosakond nimega Püha Sinod. Seda juhtis peaprokuraator, tsaari määratud ametnik. Täiesti valitsuse kontrolli all olnud õigeusu kirik mängis erinevates venestamiskampaaniates olulist rolli.

Tsaaril oli ka õigus anda pärilikke tiitleid. Need läksid tavaliselt meestele, kes olid saavutanud relvajõududes ja avalikus teenistuses kõrge auastme. 1900. aastal hinnati Venemaal umbes 1,8 miljonit aadli liiget.

Ligikaudu 85 protsenti vene inimestest elas maal ja teenis elatist põllumajandusest. Vene talupojad olid olnud pärisorjad kuni emantsipatsiooniseaduse vastuvõtmiseni aastal 1861. Aadelkond omas parimat maad ja valdav enamus talupoegi elas äärmises vaesuses.

1893. aastal nimetas Nikolai II oma rahandusministriks eduka raudteejuhi Sergi Witte. Ta julgustas Trans-Siberi raudtee laiendamist ja korraldas Hiina idaraudtee ehitamist. Witte mängis olulist rolli Venemaa tööstusliku arengu kiirendamisel ja 1900. aastaks oli Venemaal umbes 2,3 miljonit tööstustöötajat.

Venemaa tehastes olid tingimused tunduvalt madalamad kui Euroopa tööstustöötajatel. Nad töötasid keskmiselt 11 tundi (laupäeval 10 tundi). Tingimused tehastes olid äärmiselt karmid ning töötajate tervise ja ohutuse pärast tunti vähe muret. Ametiühingud olid Venemaal ebaseaduslikud ja tööstustöötajatel oli raske oma elatustaset parandada. Streigid olid samuti keelatud ja kui need toimusid, kutsuti tõenäoliselt Vene armee töölistega tegelema.


Sajand Vene ajaloos

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18. sajandil toimus kolm dramaatilist ja kaugeleulatuvat sündmust, millel olid tagajärjed ülejäänud sajandile ja kaugemalegi. Need olid Napoleoni pealetung, dekabristide mäss ja pärisorjade emantsipatsioon. Need sündmused inspireerisid ka vene autoreid ja kunstnikke looma seda, mis sai tuntuks kui vene kultuuri kuldaeg. Sajandil laienes ka Vene impeerium Soome, Poolasse, Kaukaasiasse, Kesk -Aasiasse ja Kaug -Idasse ning rajas kaubandusposte Alaskal ja Californias.

Vene laienemine Kaukaasiasse

Sisse 1801Pärast Kartli ja Kakheti kuninga Giorgi XII surma liitis keiser Paulus oma osa Gruusia kuningriigist Venemaale, ettekäändel kaitsta Venemaa õigeusu naabreid Pärsia eest. Sisse 1804 aastal puhkes sõda Pärsiaga territoriaalse vaidluse tõttu, kuid aastal 1813 Venemaa võit sundis pärslasi ametlikult Venemaale loovutama kogu Gruusia, Dagestani ja suurema osa tänapäeva Aserbaidžaanist.

Pauluse mõrv

Nagu tema isa enne teda, võõrandas keiser Pauluse poliitika temast palju aadlikke. Paul oli sellest teadlik ja sellest tulenevalt mõrvaoht. Paulus ei kavatsenud oma isa saatust jagada ja tellis seega Peterburi Püha Miikaeli lossi ehitamise, mis tema arvates oleks turvalisem kui Talvepalee. Pauluse usaldus oma uue elukoha vastu oli vale. Sisse Märts 1801, vaid mõni kuu pärast uue lossi valmimist mõrvati Paul oma magamistoas aadlike ja ohvitseride vandenõus. Tema järglaseks sai tema poeg Aleksandr Pavlovitš, kellest sai keiser Aleksander I ja kes arvatavasti teadis vähemalt oma isa kukutamise plaanist. Selle üle, kas Aleksander mängis tähtsamat rolli või teadis, kas see oli mõeldud tema isa tapmiseks, arutatakse.

Vene-Ameerika ettevõte

Tagasi sees 1799 Keiser Paul käskis asutada Venemaa Ameerika aktsiaseltsi Venemaa esimese aktsiaseltsina, kelle ülesandeks oli asutada Alaskal karusnahakaubanduse asulad ja kaubanduspunktid. Samal aastal rajas Venemaa Ameerika ettevõtte esindaja Arkhangela Mihhaili kindluse (peaingel Miikaeli kindlus) tänapäevase Alaska linna Sitka lähedal, kuid aastal 1802 põline Tinglit rahvas hävitas asula. Vastuseks sellele peeti Sitka lahing 1804 Vene asunike ja põliselanike vahel, kus venelased nautisid üllatuslikult otsustavat võitu ja suutsid põliselanikud välja tõrjuda ning rajada Vene-Ameerika peamiseks linnaks saanud Novo-Arhangelski (Uus-Arhangelsk) linna.

Venelased astusid Alaskast lõunasse Californiasse ja aastal 1812 asutas Vene Ameerika ettevõte Californias Fort Rossi. Ameerika asulatest suutis ettevõte koguda rebastelt, saarmadelt, koprastelt ja hülgedelt väärtuslikke karusnahku, kuid ettevõte kaalus ka edasise koloniseerimise ideed.

Austerlitzi lahing ja Tilsiti rahu

Keisriks saades hindas Aleksander I Napoleoni ähvardust Euroopa monarhiale ja otsis liitlasi, püüdes astuda vastu Prantsusmaa kasvavale võimule, liitudes Prantsusmaa vastase kolmanda koalitsiooniga. Sisse Detsember 1805 Vene impeeriumi ja Püha Rooma keisririigi armeed eesotsas vastavalt Aleksander I ja keiser Francis I -ga kohtusid Napoleoni ja tema Grande Armée'ga Austerlitzi lahingus (praeguse Tšehhi Vabariigi territooriumil), mida tuntakse ka lahinguna. kolm keisrit. Selle tulemuseks oli otsustav prantslaste võit. Lüüasaamine viis Austriani Prantsusmaaga rahu sõlmimiseni ja lõpuks Püha Rooma impeeriumi lagunemiseni. Aastal kannatas Venemaa Napoleoni käe all Friedlandi lahingus Preisimaal Juuni 1807 ja pärast lahingut kohtus Aleksander Napoleoniga Tilsitis jõe parvel rahu sõlmimiseks.

Soome sõda

Venemaa rahu tagajärjel Napoleoniga oli vaenulikkus nende riikide vastu, kes talle endiselt vastu hakkasid. Kaks sellist riiki olid Ühendkuningriik ja Rootsi. Aastal, kui kuninglik merevägi ründas Kopenhaageni 1807 Venemaa kuulutas Ühendkuningriigile sõja ning Läänemerel ja Barentsi meres olid kuningliku mereväe ja Vene laevastiku vahel lahingud. Sisse 1808, kui Rootsi keeldus järgimast Napoleoni mandrilist süsteemi, okupeeris Venemaa Soome, mis oli siis Rootsi osa, ja kahe riigi vahel puhkes Soome sõda. Sõda oli Venemaa jaoks edukas ja rahu sõlmimisel 1809, Soome liideti Venemaaga Soome Suurvürstiriigina. Hiljem oli kuningas Gustav IV Adolf sunnitud kaotuse tõttu Rootsi kuningast loobuma.

Napoleoni sissetung

Rahu Prantsusmaaga oli alati habras ja see varises lõpuks kokku 1812. Napoleoni otsus tungida Venemaale sündis pärast seda, kui Venemaa avas kaubanduse Ühendkuningriigiga aastal 1810. Napoleon kavatses taastada ka Poola riigi. Peal 24. juunil 1812 Grande Armée sisenes Venemaa Poolasse, ületades Nemani jõe, tähistades piiri Preisi ja Vene impeeriumi vahel. Grande Armée kohtas vähe vastupanu ja vähesed sõjalised tegevused lõppesid Venemaa taganemisega.

Smolenski lahing

Kõrval Juulil 1812 Grande Armée oli Vitebskis ja sealt mööda Augustil 1812 see on ületanud Dnepri jõe ja asus Venemaal väljaspool Smolenski linna, kus olid kindral Pjotr ​​Bagrationi Vene väed. Seejärel saabus linna ka Venemaa peamine vägi, mida juhtis kindral Michael Barclay de Tolly - kõrgeim ülem. Just Smolenskis toimus sõja esimene suurem lahing. Napoleon eeldas, et Vene armee seisab ja võitleb strateegiliselt ja ajalooliselt olulise Smolenski linna kaitsmise eest, mis omakorda viib Moskva ja Peterburi teed juhtiva Vene armee hävitamiseni. Venelased üritasid algul linna kaitsta, kuid lõpuks otsustas Barclay de Tolly, et Vene armee päästmine on olulisem kui Smolensk ja käskis linna maha jätta. Linna kremlit rikuti lõpuks ja linn kukkus ning hävis selle käigus praktiliselt. Taganemisel hävitas Vene armee kõik võimalikud varud, et need prantslaste kätte ei satuks.

Borodino lahing

Sel ajal põhjustas Barclay de Tolly põletatud maa taktika, Smolenski püha linna kaotamine ja pidev taganemine venelastele meeleheite ja tõsise moraali kaotuse. Paljud olid Barclay de Tolly suhtes kriitilised ja tema võõras nimi ei soosinud teda. Pärast Smolenski langemist anti ülemjuhatus kindral Mihhail Kutuzovile, kes hoolimata kuuekümnendatest eluaastatest ja ülekaalulisusest osutus koheseks moraali tõstjaks. Kutuzov teadis, et oleks liiga palju lasta Moskval ilma võitluseta langeda, ja valmistas seega Vene armee ette lahingus Napoleoniga kohtumiseks.

Aastal kohtusid kaks Prantsusmaa ja Venemaa armeed Septembril 1812 Borodino külas, Moskva lähenemisel Mozhaiski lähedal. Borodino lahingut kirjeldatakse kui ühte suurimat lahingut kogu ajaloos, kus osales ligi veerand miljonit meest ja umbes kolmandik sellest sai surma või haavata. Lahing osutus sellegipoolest ebaselgeks ja mõlemad armeed kandsid suuri kaotusi. Seda võib väita kui prantslaste võitu, kui venelased taganesid, kuid Kutuzov teadis, et seni, kuni Vene armee on täielikust hävitamisest päästetud, on see võimeline uute värbajatega taastuma. Napoleonil polnud sellist võimalust.

Moskva vallutamine

Pärast Borodinot suundus Napoleon otse Moskvasse ja kohtumisel vana pealinna äärelinnas Filis pidas Kutuzov koosoleku, kus otsustati jätkata Barclay de Tolly kõrbenud maa poliitikat ja Moskvast loobuda.

Napoleon saabus linna nädal pärast Borodinot ja ootas kohtumist, et linna kätte anda, ta ei suutnud uskuda, et venelased hülgavad Moskva - riigi vaimse pealinna. Kuid nad mitte ainult ei hüljanud seda, vaid puhastasid selle varudest ja süütasid põlema, eitades niiviisi juba ammendatud ja näljaste vaenlase varusid.

Maloyaroslavetsi lahing

Kõrval Oktoober 1812 talve lähenedes mõistis Napoleon, et tal pole muud lootust kui Moskvast taganeda, et päästa oma armee näljast ja paljastusest. Ta teadis ka, et tagasipöördumine tuldud teed pidi tähendab hävitamist, kuna venelased olid sellel liinil juba kõik varud hävitanud. Seetõttu otsustas Napoleon võtta Kaluga kaudu marsruudi tagasi, kust ta armeele varusid leida saab. Ka venelased said sellest aru ning Kutuzov ja tema armee olid juba Kalugas Napoleoni ootamas. Oktoobri lõpus kohtusid Vene väed kindral Dmitri Dokhturovi juhtimisel Grande Armée'ga Maloyaroslavetsis Kaluga lähenemisel. Grande Armée oli taas võidukas ja venelased taganesid taas, kuid Napoleon teadis, et tema armee hävitatakse, kui ta jätkab Kaluga poole suundumist ja muud võimalust pole, kui varude puudusest hoolimata Smolenski marsruut tagasi võtta.

Napoleoni taandumine

Taandudes suurenesid Grande Armée jäänused näljahädast üha väiksemaks, talv ja venelaste rünnakud andsid oma panuse. Sisse Detsembril 1812 Napoleon hülgas oma armee ja kokku pääses vaid väike osa kunagisest Grande Arméest elusana. Napoleoni unistused Venemaa vallutamisest olid läbi. Venemaa ajaloos mäletatakse sõda Isamaasõjana. Aastal suri Kutuzov 1813 ja seda mäletatakse kui Venemaa kangelast ja päästjat. Kuid Barclay de Tolly põletatud maa taktika, mis oli tol ajal ebapopulaarne, omistati ka Venemaa päästmisele ja seda korratakse 20. sajandil uue sissetungija vastu.

Aleksandri reformid

Pärast Prantsuse ohu likvideerimist naasis keiser Aleksander I oma plaanide juurde reformida Venemaad. Aleksander, nagu ka tema vanaema, oli tuntud oma liberaalsete vaadete poolest ja ta mängis ideega pärisorjad emantsipeerida ja võtta vastu Venemaa põhiseadus. Kuid eliit oli nende plaanide vastu ägedalt vastu ja ka Aleksander kaotas lõpuks selle isu, tundes, et Vene ühiskond pole veel emantsipatsiooniks ja põhiseaduseks valmis.

Aleksandri surm

Aleksandri valitsemisaeg lõppes ootamatult tema ootamatu surmaga aastal Novembril 1825. Sel ajal, kui ta oli Taganrogi linnas, oli ta läinud lõunasse, kus kliima oli kasulik tema naise halva tervise raviks. Surm oli nii ootamatu, et sellest ajast saadik on levinud kuulujutud, et keiser võltsis tegelikult oma surma ja temast sai tegelikult Tomskis munk. Kuna tal polnud poegi, oli teine ​​tagajärg see, et ta polnud pärijat ette valmistanud.

Dekabristide mäss

Aleksandri vanim vend oli Konstantin Pavlovitš, kes oli tol ajal Poola kuberner, ja kuninglik valvur vandus talle truudust. Kuid Konstantinil polnud kavatsust keisriks saada ja ta keeldus kohe oma noorema venna Nikolai Pavlovitši (kellest sai keiser Nikolai I) kasuks. Segaduses nägi rühm liberaalseid aadlikke tegutsema, et saavutada oma unistus Venemaa põhiseadusest ja pärisorjade emantsipatsioonist. Kuna sündmused toimusid aastal Detsembril 1825 see vandenõulaste rühm on saanud tuntuks kui dekabristid.

Dekabristidel õnnestus veenda ohvitserirühma mitte vanduma truudust Nikolai I -le, mis truudusetseremoonial Peterburis Senatskaja Ploschadil (Senati väljakul) toimus. Esialgse plaani kohaselt pidi ajutine diktaator nimetama teisi dekabriste toetavaid vägesid ja mässuliste juhti prints Sergei Trubetskoy. Kuid Trubetskoy mõtles teisiti ja ei läinud Senatskaja Ploschadi juurde ning dekabriste toetas vaid 3000 sõdurit, samas kui 9000 jäi truuks. Sellegipoolest lasti Nikolai saadik hiljem maha ja mässulised alustasid ebaõnnestunud katset Talvepaleed vallutada. Mäss tühistati lõpuks, kui Nikolai käskis tulistajate peale suurtükiväega tulistada.

Mässulised põgenesid, kuid lõpuks koguti nad kokku ja arreteeriti. Viis radikaalsemat liidrit poodi üles, vaatamata sellele, et esimesel katsel purunesid trossid. Teised juhid, sealhulgas Trubetskoy, saadeti Siberisse. Dekabriste mäletatakse nüüd hellitavalt kui inimestest, kes loobusid kõigest ja need olid eliidi inimesed, kellel oli palju kaotada, püüdes kasu saada oma riigile ja vaesematele kaasmaalastele. Vene kirjanduses ja kunstis eriti tähistatud sündmuste teine ​​aspekt on dekabristide naiste saatus, kes loobusid ka kõigest, et reisida koos abikaasaga Siberisse pagulusse.

Raud tsaar

Nikolai I valitsemisaega iseloomustasid tema reaktsiooniline poliitika, agressiivne välispoliitika ja siseriiklikud repressioonid, mis pälvisid temast "Raudse tsaari" kainestuse. Talle meeldis riietuda sõduriks ja ta oli kinnisideeks detailidega, jagades oma isa kirge sõjaväeparaadide vastu. Sisse 1830 ja 1831 relvastatud ülestõusu Poolas purustas Vene armee ja Nikolai määras, et Poola on nüüd Vene impeeriumi lahutamatu osa. Sellest mainest hoolimata ei meeldinud Nicholasele pärisorjuse mõiste ja ta oleks näinud selle kaotamist, kuid kartuses aristokraatia mässu eest. Sellegipoolest tegi ta täiustusi riigile kuuluvate "kroonorjade" heaks.

Esimesed raudteed

Nikolai I valitsemisajal rajati ka esimesed raudteed Venemaal. Esimene raudteeliin oli vaid 17 km ja avati aastal 1837 Peterburi ja Tsarskoe Selo keiserliku palee vahel. Sellele järgnes Peterburi ja Moskva vahelise liini ulatuslikum ja avalikum projekt, mis ehitati vahele 1842 ja 1851. Sageli öeldakse, et muidu Peterburi ja Moskva vahelise sirgjoone löök oli tingitud asjaolust, et Nicholas tõmbas marsruuti soovitades kogemata pöidla ümber kaardil joonlaua abil ja insenerid kartsid liiga palju tema käske. Nagu paljud sedalaadi veidrad lood, on see lihtsalt linnamüüt - kõver on vältida järsku kallakut. Igal juhul osutus projekt edukaks ja sajandi lõpuks oli rajatud üle 19 000 miili raja.

Vene kirjanduse kuldaeg

Hoolimata Nikolai valitsemisaja represseerimisest või võib -olla just sellele reageerides, koges Venemaa sel perioodil kirjanduse ja kunsti kuldaega. Selle ajastu (ja tegelikult vene kirjanduse üldiselt) silmapaistev kirjanik ja luuletaja oli Aleksandr Puškin. Puškin ei kirjutanud mitte ainult tavalistest venelastest ja vene teemadest, vaid ka vene keeles. Tegelikult loetakse, et ta on loonud vene kirjakeele ajal, mil kohus kippus kasutama prantsuse keelt - vene keel jäeti talupoegade hooleks. Puškini kirjutised ja sidemed dekabristidega viisid ta lõpuks oma maavaldustesse pagendusse. Teiste selle aja kuulsate kirjanike hulgas olid Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev ja Mihhail Lermontov, kes sillutasid hiljem teed Lev Tolstoi, Fjodor Dostojevski ja Anton Tšehhovi jaoks. See, mida tegi Puškin vene kirjanduse heaks, tegi Mihhail Glinka vene klassikalise muusika heaks, kirjutades esimesena vene teemalisi kompositsioone, millel oli iseloomulik vene maitse.

Edasine laienemine Kaukaasiasse

Aastal 1826 Aastal läks Venemaa taas sõtta Pärsia vastu, mis lõppes 1828 Venemaa kasuks ja rahulepinguga, mis nägi Venemaa kontrolli üle suurema osa Pärsia territooriumidest Kaukaasias, sealhulgas ülejäänud tänapäeva Aserbaidžaani ja Armeenia osad. Sellele sõjale järgnes sõda Ottomani impeeriumiga, mis lõppes samuti Venemaa võiduga. The 1829 rahuleping andis Venemaale kontrolli Musta mere ranniku üle kuni Doonauni.

Krimmi sõda

Aastal 1850ndad Ottomani impeerium oli sedavõrd nõrgenenud, et Prantsusmaa ja Suurbritannia olid äärmiselt mures, et Venemaa on Ottomani allakäigu peamine heategija ja suudab Katariina Suure plaani ellu viia ning levib lõunasse. Sisse 1852 Prantsusmaa suutis Ottomani sultanit survestada nimetama Prantsusmaad Püha Maa kristlike alade kõrgeimaks võimuks - seda tiitlit on Venemaa kandnud alates 18. sajandist. Venemaa saatis sultanile vastuseks sellele missiooni ja kui missioon ebaõnnestus, tungis ta Osmanite Doonau aladele. Juulil 1853. Sultan kuulutas Venemaale kohe sõja ning Prantsuse ja Briti laevastikud sisenesid Dardanellidele. Sisse Novembril 1853 Vene laevastik hävitas Sinopi lahingus sadamasse ankurdatud Ottomani laevad ja selle tegevuse tulemusel kuulutasid Prantsusmaa ja Suurbritannia Venemaa vastu sõja.

Järgnev sõda hõlmas mitut teatrit: Doonau, Must meri, Kaukaasia, Valge meri (kuningliku mereväega pommitati Solovetski kloostrit), Aasovi meri, Läänemeri (sealhulgas inglise-prantsuse katse rünnata Vene laevastikku aastal Krondstadt) ja Vaikses ookeanis (koos Anglo-Prantsuse piiramisega Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky ning katsega maanduda Kamtšatkal ja Sahhalinis).

Kuid nagu nimigi ütleb, peeti sõda enamasti Krimmi poolsaarel. Aastast piirasid britid, prantslased ja türklased Krimmi Sevastopoli sadamat 1854 et 1855. Aasta piiramise osana toimus Balaklava lahing Oktoober 1854 kuulus ebaõnnestunud kerge brigaadi ülesande eest, kus Briti ratsavägi ründas otseselt Vene suurtükipatareid, põhjustades suuri kaotusi.

Amuuri omandamine

Sisse 1848 juhtis vene navigaator Gennadi Nevelskoy ekspeditsiooni Venemaa idasse ümber Amuuri jõe ja Sahhalini, mille ekspeditsioon tõestas olevat saar. Sisse 1855 Venemaa allkirjastas Jaapaniga Shimoda lepingu, mis lubas neil asuda saare põhjaossa, jaapanlased aga lõunasse. Sisse 1850 Nevelskoje asutas Amuuri suudmealal Nikolajevski posti (nimeks keiser Nikolai I auks), mis sai pärast Krimmi sõda Vaikse ookeani piirkonna ja Venemaa peamiseks keskuseks. 1856 sai linna staatuse ja nimetati ümber Nikolaevsk-on-Amuriks.

Sisse 1854 Ida-Siberi kindralkuberner Nikolai Muravev käis koos Transbaikalia kasakasperega Amuuri piirkonda lähemalt uurimas. Järgnevatel aastatel saadeti piirkonda vene asunikke. Muravev vastutas ka allkirjastatud Aiguni lepingu eest 1858 Venemaa ja Hiina impeeriumide vahel, kes nägid Venemaad okupeerimas territooriumi Amuuri jõest põhja pool ja Ussuri jõest idas, kinnitati seda arusaama Pekingi lepingutes. 1860. Sisse 1858 Habarovka (tänapäeva Habarovski) sõjaväeamet asutati suletuks, kus oli 17. sajandi kasakasiuurija Jerofey Habarovi talvelaager. Sisse Juunil 1860 varustuslaev Manchur saabus Kuldsarve lahele ja asutas eelposti, mis kannab nime Vladivostok - vene keeles "ida isand".

Nikolai I surm

Sisse Veebruar 1855 Keiser Nikolai I suri pärast Krimmis kopsupõletikku haigestumist, kontrollides vägesid. Nikolai järglaseks sai tema vanim poeg Aleksandr, kellest sai keiser Aleksander II. Erinevalt isast oli Aleksander II liberaal ja kavatses tuua Venemaale reformiperioodi, kuid tema esimene ülesanne oli kuluka Krimmi sõja lõpetamine.

Krimmi sõja lõpp

Vaatamata vene kaitsjate kangelaslikkusele, aastal Augustil 1855, pärast kuuendat pommitamist Sevastopol langes. Noor kirjanik Lev Tolstoi oli nende sündmuste tunnistajaks ja kirjutas neist kolmes novellis, mida tuntakse Sevastopoli visanditena. Aastal nägi Venemaa rohkem edu Taganrogis Augustil 1855 aastal, kui Inglise-Prantsuse piiramine lõppes ilma linna langemiseta ja Karsi lahingus aastal Juunil 1855 kus Vene väed vallutasid strateegilise Türgi kindluse.

Sevastopoli kukkumine, keiser Nikolai I surm ning Briti ja Prantsusmaa suurenev rahulolematus kõrgete ohvrite määraga vähendasid agaritust jätkata sõda kõigi osapoolte vahel ja Märts 1856 allkirjastati Krimmi sõja lõpetav Pariisi leping. Lepingu tähtajaks tagastas Venemaa kõik Osmanite impeeriumilt võidetud alad, samas Krimm tagastati Venemaale. Kuid nii Ottomani impeeriumil kui ka Venemaal keelati Musta mere laevastiku pidamine.

Pärisorjuste emantsipatsioon

Nagu tema isa, onu ja vanavanaema, teadis Aleksander II, et Venemaa ei arene kunagi kaasaegse riigina, samas kui enamik Euroopa Venemaa alamatest olid pärisorjad. Kuid erinevalt oma eelkäijatest oli Aleksander veendunud oma plaani elluviimisest hoolimata aadlike protestidest, põhjendades oma kavatsust sellega, et kõige parem on see, et pärast massilist pärisorjuse mässu tuli reform ülevalt, mitte alt. Moodustati pärisorjuse komisjonid, et arutada probleemi parimat lahendust. Lõpuks lepiti kokku, et pärisorjad vabastatakse ja neile antakse laene endiste peremeeste maa ostmiseks. Allkirjastati ametlik emantsipatsiooni seadus Märtsil 1861 lõpetades sajanditepikkuse pärisorjuse ja pälvides Aleksandrile „Vabastaja” kaaslase. Kuid uus olukord polnud kaugeltki täiuslik, kuna endised pärisorjad olid endiselt majanduslikult sõltuvad oma endistest isandatest ja neile anti sageli maa kõige vaesemad osad ning neil ei lubatud seda müüa.

Kaukaasia sõda: karm sõda

Kuna 1817 venelased olid teinud jõupingutusi Põhja -Kaukaasia rahva alistamiseks ja see protsess sai täiendavat hoogu pärast Ottomani impeeriumi ja Pärsia vastu saavutatud võitu. 1820ndad. Seda pikaleveninud konflikti tuntakse Kaukaasia sõjana, kuid tegelikkuses koosneb see mitmest sõjaajast ja kahest põhiteatrist: Põhja-Kaukaasia ida- ja lääneosast. Aleksander II valitsemisajal jõudis sõda haripunkti.

Põhja -Kaukaasia idaosas sai konflikt tuntuks kui Muri sõda ja erinevad rahvad suutsid ühineda venelaste sissetungi vastu ühise islami usu all. 1828 aastal loodi Kaukaasia imaat ja aastal 1834 Imam Shamilist sai osariigi kolmas imaam. Just Shamili ajal oli imamaat kõige tugevam ja ühtsem. Shamil kasutas sissitaktikat venelaste vastu, kes ei olnud selliseks sõjapidamiseks täielikult valmis. Ta tegi endale nime ka oma kangelaslikkuse ja võime eest põgeneda kõigi võimaluste vastu. Sellest aga ei piisanud, et astuda Vene armee vägede vastu igaveseks ja sisse 1859 Shamil tabati. Vastutasuks Vene võimu tunnustamise eest lubati tal oma perega Kalugasse elama asuda, enne kui Kiievisse kolis, oli soojem kliima talle rohkem meele järgi. Lõpuks suri ta sisse 1871 palverännakul Medinas.

Kaukaasia sõda: Vene-Tšerkessi sõda

Sõda, mis hõlmab konkreetselt Põhja-Kaukaasia idaosa, on tuntud ka kui Vene-Tšerkessi sõda. Venemaa oli tunginud Tšerkessi (tuntud ka kui Adyghe) maadesse Peeter Suure ajast alates ja Nikolai I ajal ehitati kindlused Musta mere rannikule. 1830ndad mis hiljem olid kindlusteks. Kui selline linnus loodi aastal 1838 tänapäeva Sotši saidil.

Pärast imaam Shamili vallutamist vabastati vene väed, mis viidi seejärel idateatrisse, kus 1859 venelased olid edukad ka kontrolli kehtestamisel ja tšerkessi juhtide lojaalsusvande saamisel. Need, kes keeldusid, olid sunnitud põgenema Ottomani impeeriumisse, tuhandeid inimesi oli sellel teel suremas - seda sündmust on mõned kirjeldanud etnilise puhastuse või genotsiidina. Sisse 1864 Keiser Aleksander III kuulutas Kaukaasia sõja lõpu ja kogu Kaukaasia vallutamise.

Turkestani vallutamine

Pärast edu Kaukaasias pööras Venemaa tähelepanu Kesk -Aasia aladele, mida vaatamata sellele, et tegemist ei olnud ühe rahvusliku riigiga, nimetati neid siis Turkestaniks (tänapäeva Kasahstan, Kõrgõzstan, Türkmenistan ja Usbekistan). Need sündmused on osa nn mängust, mis pani Suurbritannia Venemaa vastu, kuna see kartis Venemaa laienemist India suunas. Sisse 1865 Vene väed vallutasid Taškendi, millele järgnes 1868 ülejäänud Koqandi khaaniriigist sai Venemaa protektoraat. Aastal liideti uus territoorium ametlikult impeeriumiga 1867 Turkestani kindralkubernerina.

Sisse 1868 Venemaa vallutas olulise linna Samarkandi Buhara emiraadist piirkonna idaosas ja aastal 1873 nii Buhhaara emiraat kui ka Khiva emiraat aktsepteerisid Venemaa ülemvõimu ja said protektoraatideks. Lõpuks sisse 1876 Koqandi khaaniriik kaotati ja liideti Venemaa Turkestaniga. Venemaa vallutamine Turkestanis oli täielik.

Alaska ost

Autor 1860ndad Alaska kolooniad muutusid üle jahi, brittide ja ameeriklaste konkurentsi ning kolooniate vahemaa tõttu raskemaks kui nende väärtus. Tagasi sees 1849 Fort Ross Californias müüdi, kuna seda ei olnud enam vaja Alaska kolooniate varustamiseks ja aastal 1867 otsustati müüa Alaska USA -le 7,2 miljoni dollari eest. Tlingiti põliselanikud väitsid küll, et seda maad ei müünud ​​kunagi venelased, vaid vähe. Vene Ameerika kolooniate lõppemine tõi kaasa Vene-Ameerika kompanii likvideerimise.

Keiser Aleksander II mõrv

Pärisorjade emantsipatsioon ei lõpetanud Venemaal valitsenud revolutsioonilist meeleolu ajal, mil Euroopas toimusid demokraatlikud ja vabariiklikud revolutsioonid. Vaatamata pärisorjade emantsipatsioonile nõudsid revolutsionäärid ikkagi Venemaa põhiseadust ning tööliste ja talupoegade hulga parandamist. Sisse 1866 esimese katse keisri elule tegi revolutsionäär. Sisse 1867 aastal üritati keisrit Pariisis maha lasta ja seejärel veel üks katse Peterburis aastal 1879. Samal aastal moodustati revolutsiooniline rühmitus Narodnaja Volya (Rahva Tahe) ja nad suutsid oma rongi vaguni õhku lasta, kuid keiser ei saanud vigastada. Sisse 1880 Narodnaja Volya suutis Talvepaleesse ise pommi panna, tappes 11 turvameest, kuid jättes keisri jälle ilma.

Keisril oli kõigil eelnevatel katsetel vedanud, kuid Narodnaja Volyal pidi õnne olema ainult üks kord ja see päev saabus Märtsil 1881. Sõjaväerollilt koju naastes viskas Narodnaja Volya liige keisri vankrile pommi, tappes ühe keisri kasakavahi. Seejärel tegi Aleksander saatusliku vea, väljudes kuulikindlast vagunist, kus rahva hulgas oli veel üks Narodnaja Volya liige, kes oli samuti pommiga relvastatud. Ignacy Hryniewiecki - noor Poola revolutsionäär - viskas oma pommi surmavalt haavates keisrit. Aleksander II viidi tagasi Talvepaleesse, kus ta haavadesse suri.

Keiser Aleksander III valitsemisaeg

Revolutsionäärid lootsid, et mõrv tekitab Venemaal revolutsiooni, kuid tegelikult tapsid nad just kõige liberaalsema valitseja, keda Venemaa oli näinud, ja sellise, kes isegi kaalus põhiseaduse loomise ideed. Tema asemel järgnes Aleksandrile tema poeg Aleksandr Aleksandrovitš (keiser Aleksander III). Aleksander III nägi tänu, mida isa sai oma liberaalsest poliitikast, ja asus selle asemel konservatiivse õigeusu-, autokraatia- ja rahvuspoliitika poole, millega püüti levitada vene õigeusku ja vene keelt kogu impeeriumis. Aastal kehtestati ka uued seadused 1882 seades juutidele täiendavaid piiranguid.

Vaatamata autoritaarsele mainele siseasjades, on välisasjades Aleksander III tuntud rahutegijana ja on Venemaa valitsejate seas ainulaadne, kuna tema valitsemisajal ei osalenud Vene armee suurtes konfliktides. Tema valitsemisaja üheks oluliseks aspektiks oli liidu sõlmimine Prantsusmaaga, mis põhines tema vastumeelsusel Saksamaa keiser Wilhelm II käitumisele.

Katsed Aleksander III elule

Innustatuna edust tappa Aleksander II, lootis Narodnaja Volya seda korrata Aleksander III -ga. Olles sellest täiesti teadlik, kolis Aleksander III turvalisuse huvides koos perega Peterburi lähedal asuvasse Gatšina paleesse. Sisse 1887 sellise plaani avastasid Okhrana politseijõud ja vandenõulased poodi üles - sealhulgas teatud Aleksandr Uljanov, kelle noorem vend Vladimir oli venna saatusest sügavalt mõjutatud.

Sisse Oktoober 1888 rong, millega Aleksander ja tema pere Krimmist naastes sõitsid, pommitati ja rööbastelt rööbastelt rööbastelt rööbastesse pandi. Aleksandrit nimetati tema välimuse ja suure jõu tõttu sageli „mužikiks (talupojamees) tsaariks” ning väidetavalt tõstis Aleksander pärast plahvatust vankri varisenud katuse, et tema perekond saaks põgeneda. 21 people were killed, but members of the imperial family were not among the dead.

Death of Alexander III

The attack on the train though is said to have helped bring about the death of the emperor of kidney failure several years later, although his appetite for alcohol probably played a role too. The emperor died among his family at their residence of the Lividia Palace outside Yalta in Crimea in 1894. At his bedside was his 26 year old son Nikolai Aleksandrovich who succeeded him as Emperor Nicholas II. Within a month of the funeral of Alexander II, Nicholas II married Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt – a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom – who converted to Orthodoxy and took the name Aleksandra Fyodorovna.

Khodynka Tragedy

Sisse May 1896 Nicholas II had his formally coronation in the Dormition Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin. In celebration a festival was organised for citizens in the Khodynka Field outside Moscow. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 attended and when rumours began to spread that the free food and drink was beginning to run out the crowd rushed forward resulting in people being trampled and suffocated. It is believed that over 1,300 people died and the same amount again were injured. After the tragedy Nicholas II went ahead with a planned ball in honour of the Franco-Russian Alliance, although it is believed he was persuaded to attend so as not to upset the French guests and would have rather spent the evening in prayer. Nevertheless the attendance at the ball was seen by the people as a demonstration of the emperor’s disregard for the victims and the whole tragedy was seen as a bad omen for Nicholas’s reign.


Russia Population | Data and Charts, 1900-2013

146,544.7 thousand people currently live in Russia as of January 1, 2016 according to Russian Federal State Statistics Service estimate. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs gives another estimate - 143,456.9 thousand persons. The difference of about 3 million persons is because data from Russian national statistical service include population of the Crimea since 2015, while international agencies like UN or World Bank does not consider the Crimea as a part of Russia. As of January 1, 2015 population of the Crimea was estimated at 2,294.9 thousand persons.
With or without the Crimea, Russia is nineth most populated country in the world accounting for 2% of total world population. However, due to the huge land area - the biggest in the world - population density in Russia is only 9 persons per square kilometre as of 2015.
Moreover Russian statistical service also provides more optimistic population forecast according to which population will be increasing till 2025 and then will start to decline. But as for UN projections, Russian population is already declining, so that in 2016 it will be 17 thousands lower than in 2015.
As of 2010 population census, population in Russia was 143,436.1 thousand persons.

The current population of the Russian Federation is 143,5 million people. Starting from 1991 total fertility rate in Russia is below 1.9, which means that, on average, every woman gives birth to less than 2 children. Population division of the UN expects Russia population to decrease to 120 million people by 2050.

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Russia in 1900 - History


In 1891 work on the TRANSIBERIAN RAILROAD was begun, in 1895 on the TRANSCASPIAN RAILROAD. Historians have observed that with the accession of CZAR NICHOLAS II. to the throne in 1894, the pace of Russia's industrialization picked up. Another factor was the French alliance French banks invested considerably in Russia. In 1897 Russia adopted the GOLD STANDARD, a measure which encouraged foreign investment and helped speed up the process of industrialization.
In 1892, the Russian Empire had a railroad network of a combined length of 31,202 km, in 1905 of 61,085 km (having surpassed Germany as Europe's country with the 'longest' railroad system in 1899).In 1892 Russia's output of pig-iron amounted to 1.1 million metric tons (less than 1/6 of the British), in 1905 it had risen to 2.7 million metric tons or more than 1/4 of the British output. In 1892, Russian coal mines produced 6.9 million tons of coal in 1905 production reached 18.7 million tons.
While the figures indicating industrial growth were impressive - Russia's industry grew faster than those of Britain and Germany - Russia still lagged far behind the industrialized nations in terms of per-capita consumption. Russia's population also grew faster than that of western European nations the population of the Russian Empire reached 125,000,000 in 1894, 146,000,000 in 1904. Rapid industrialization also meant rapid urbanization.
In contrast to the industrialized nations of central and western Europe, Russia continued to significantly expand the farmland where grain, potatos etc. were cultivated, from 13.4 million hectares in 1895 to 20.0 million hectares in 1905 (figures for the European provinces of the Russian Empire without Poland) wheat production rose from 8.4 million metric tons in 1895 to 12.8 million in 1905, potato harvest from 21.1 million metric tons in 1895 to 27.6 million metric tons in 1905.


Russia in 1900 - History

Russia's Difficulties by Elisabeth Achelis, Journal of Calendar Reform, 1954

RUSSIAN CALENDAR HISTORY is no exception to that of other calendar histories of the past it has been a varied one with many trials and errors. Eventually the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the government to conform with the greater number of other nations.

Dr. Vera Rossovskaja, astronomer of the Research Institute at Leningrad, wrote a notable book, The Remote Past of the Calendar, published in 1936, in which she stated that up to the end of the fifteenth century the Russian year began on March 1. Years were counted from the "creation of the world," an event that was placed in the year 5509 B.C. Then for a brief interval the Moscow government began the calendar year with September 1, until about A.D. 1700, when Peter the Great introduced January 1 as the beginning of the year, adopting at the same time the reckoning of the Christian era. This aroused the opposition of the Eastern Church.

In 1709 the calendar (the Julian calendar) was first printed in Russia, more than 127 years after the Gregorian calendar had been introduced in Europe.

In the nineteenth century, because of the almost world-wide acceptance of the Gregorian calendar, the Department of Foreign Affairs used the Gregorian style in its relations with foreign countries the commerical and naval fleets too were obliged to reckon time according to the Western calendar and finally sciences, such as astronomy, meterology, etc., which had a world character, were compelled to follow the new system. All this caused considerable complication.

In 1829 the Department of Public Instruction recommended a revision of the calendar to the Academy of Science. The Academy proceeded to petition the government to accept the Gregorian calendar. Prince Lieven, in submitting the plan to Tsar Nicholas I, denounced it as "premature, unnecessary, and likely to produce upheavals, and bewilderment of mind and conscience among the people." He further declared that "the advantage from a reform of this kind will be very small and immaterial, while the inconveniences and difficulties will be unavoidable and great." The Tsar, being apprehensive, wrote on the report: "The comments of Prince Lieven are accurate and just."

From thence onward frequent attempts were made to remove the ban, but to no avail. In 1918, after the Revolution, Lenin raised the question of calendar reform and, after an investigation of the subject, published a decree directing the adoption of the Gregorian style "for the purpose of being in harmony with all the civilized countries of the world."

The adoption of the Gregorian calendar necessitated a cancellation of 13 days, instead of ten days, because in the interval three centurial years had been counted as leap years. Although the government officially accepted the Gregorian calendar, the Russian Eastern Orthodox Church still clung to the earlier and more familiar Julian. This is the reason, for example, that the observance of Christmas, on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, comes in the Julian calendar on January 7.

In 1923, a radical change in the calendar took place. Soviet Russia abolished both the Julian calendar, used by the Russian Orthodox Church, and the official Gregorian calendar that had been installed by Lenin. A new calendar was introduced, in which the weeks were changed and all religious feasts and holy days were replaced by five national public holidays associated with the Revolution.

The "Eternal Calendar" went into effect on October 6 . . . , giving five days to the weeks and six weeks to the months, so that there were 12 months of 30 days, plus five holidays with national names instead of weekday names.[note] The chief objective of the "Eternal Calendar" was to increase production, and special color cards were distributed to the workers. Rest-days became staggered. It was not realized at the time that such an arrangement would cause real hardship to family life. After several years of trial, in 1931, the five-day week and staggered rest-days were replaced by another system.

Through all these changes decreed by the Russian government, the Church still clung to the Julian calendar, and farmers and peasants continued to work and plan according to the seasons, months and weeks, as had their forefathers.

To historians and statisticians these various calendar changes bring real difficulties. Reference to the Russian Julian calendar must be made previous to 1918,

Leo Gruliow, editor of The Current Digest of the Soviet Press, recently wrote: "A combination of factors appears to have swung Russia into the growing list of supporters of calendar reform. Whether the Soviet will go beyond its present cautious endorsement of study of The World Calendar Association proposal remains to be seen. That the development of the Russian studies will lead to beneficial results is definitely assured."


Russia, 1856-1900

Russia fought the Crimean War (1853-56) with Europe's largest standing army, and Russia's population was greater than that of France and Britain combined, but it failed to defend its territory, the Crimea, from attack. This failure shocked the Russians and demonstrated to them the inadequacy of their weaponry and transport and their economic backwardness relative to the British and French.

Being unable to defend his realm from foreign attack was a great humiliation for Tsar Nicholas I, who died in 1855 toward the end of the war. He was succeeded that year by his eldest son, Alexander II, who feared arousing the Russian people by an inglorious end to the war. But the best he could do was a humiliating treaty, the Treaty of Paris &ndash signed on March 30, 1856. The treaty forbade Russian naval bases or warships on the Black Sea, leaving the Russians without protection from pirates along its 1,000 miles of Black Sea coastline, and leaving unprotected merchant ships that had to pass through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits. The treaty removed Russia's claim of protection of Orthodox Christians within the Ottoman Empire, and it allowed the Turks to make the Bosporus a naval arsenal and a place where the fleets of Russia's enemies could assemble to intimidate Russia.

In his manifesto announcing the end of the war, Alexander II promised the Russian people reform, and his message was widely welcomed. Those in Russia who read books were eager for reform, some of them with a Hegelian confidence in historical development. These readers were more nationalistic than Russia's intellectuals had been in the early years of the century. Devotion to the French language and to literature from Britain and Germany had declined since then. The Russians had been developing their own literature, with authors such as Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837), Nicolai Gogol (1809-62), Ivan Turgenev (1818-83) and Feodor Dostoievski (1821-81). And Russian literature had been producing a greater recognition of serfs as human beings.

In addition to a more productive economy, many intellectuals hoped for more of a rule of law and for an advance in rights and obligations for everyone &ndash a continuation of autocracy but less arbitrary. From these intellectuals came an appeal for freer universities, colleges and schools and a greater freedom of the press. "It is not light which is dangerous, but darkness," wrote Russia's official historian, Mikhail Pogodin.

And on the minds of reformers was the abolition of serfdom. In Russia were more the 22 million serfs, compared to 4 million slaves in the United States. They were around 44 percent of Russia's population, and described as slaves. They were the property of a little over 100,000 land owning lords (pomeshchiki). Some were owned by religious foundations, and some by the tsar (state peasants). Some labored for people other than their lords, but they had to make regular payments to their lord, with some of the more wealthy lords owning enough serfs to make a living from these payments.

Russia's peasants had become serfs following the devastation from war with the Tartars in the 1200s, when homeless peasants settled on the land owned by the wealthy. By the 1500s these peasants had come under the complete domination of the landowners, and in the 1600s, those peasants working the lord's land or working in the lord's house had become bound to the lords by law, the landowners having the right to sell them as individuals or families. And sexual exploitation of female serfs had become common.

It was the landowner who chose which of his serfs would serve in Russia's military &ndash a twenty-five-year obligation. In the first half of the 1800s, serf uprisings in the hundreds had occurred, and serfs in great number had been running away from their lords. But in contrast to slavery in the United States, virtually no one in Russia was defending serfdom ideologically. There was to be no racial divide or Biblical quotation to argue about. Those who owned serfs defended that ownership merely as selfish interest. Public opinion overwhelmingly favored emancipation, many believing that freeing the serfs would help Russia advance economically to the level at least of Britain or France. Those opposed to emancipation were isolated &ndash among them the tsar's wife and mother, who feared freedom for so many would not be good for Russia.


Russia in 1900 - History

The gradual accession of Stalin to power in the 1920s eventually brought an end to the liberalization of society and the economy, leading instead to a period of unprecedented government control, mobilization, and terrorization of society in Russia and the other Soviet republics. In the 1930s, agriculture and industry underwent brutal forced centralization, and Russian cultural activity was highly restricted. Purges eliminated thousands of individuals deemed dangerous to the Soviet state by Stalin's operatives.

Industrialization and Collectivization

At the end of the 1920s, a dramatic new phase in economic development began when Stalin decided to carry out a program of intensive socialist construction. To some extent, Stalin pressed economic development at this point as a political maneuver to eliminate rivals within the party. Because Bukharin and some other party members would not give up the gradualistic NEP in favor of radical development, Stalin branded them "right-wing deviationists" and during 1929 and 1930 used the party organization to remove them from influential positions. Yet Stalin's break with the NEP also revealed that his doctrine of building "socialism in one country" paralleled the line that Trotsky had originally supported early in the 1920s. Marxism supplied no basis for Stalin's model of a planned economy, although the centralized economic controls of the war communism years seemingly furnished a Leninist precedent. Between 1927 and 1929, the State Planning Committee (Gosudarstvennyy planovyy komitet--Gosplan) worked out the First Five-Year Plan (see Glossary) for intensive economic growth Stalin began to implement this plan--his "revolution from above"--in 1928.

The First Five-Year Plan called for rapid industrialization of the economy, with particular emphasis on heavy industry. The economy was centralized: small-scale industry and services were nationalized, managers strove to fulfill Gosplan's output quotas, and the trade unions were converted into mechanisms for increasing worker productivity. But because Stalin insisted on unrealistic production targets, serious problems soon arose. With the greatest share of investment put into heavy industry, widespread shortages of consumer goods occurred, and inflation grew.

To satisfy the state's need for increased food supplies, the First Five-Year Plan called for the organization of the peasantry into collective units that the authorities could easily control. This collectivization program entailed compounding the peasants' lands and animals into collective farms (kolkhozy sing., kolkhoz --see Glossary) and state farms (sovkhozy sing., sovkhoz --see Glossary) and restricting the peasants' movement from these farms. The effect of this restructuring was to reintroduce a kind of serfdom into the countryside. Although the program was designed to affect all peasants, Stalin in particular sought to eliminate the wealthiest peasants, known as kulaks. Generally, kulaks were only marginally better off than other peasants, but the party claimed that the kulaks had ensnared the rest of the peasantry in capitalistic relationships. In any event, collectivization met widespread resistance not only from the kulaks but from poorer peasants as well, and a desperate struggle of the peasantry against the authorities ensued. Peasants slaughtered their cows and pigs rather than turn them over to the collective farms, with the result that livestock resources remained below the 1929 level for years afterward. The state in turn forcibly collectivized reluctant peasants and deported kulaks and active rebels to Siberia. Within the collective farms, the authorities in many instances exacted such high levels of procurement that starvation was widespread.

By 1932 Stalin realized that both the economy and society were under serious strain. Although industry failed to meet its production targets and agriculture actually lost ground in comparison with 1928 yields, Stalin declared that the First Five-Year Plan had successfully met its goals in four years. He then proceeded to set more realistic goals. Under the Second Five-Year Plan (1933-37), the state devoted attention to consumer goods, and the factories built under the first plan helped increase industrial output in general. The Third Five-Year Plan, begun in 1938, produced poorer results because of a sudden shift of emphasis to armaments production in response to the worsening international climate. In general, however, the Soviet economy had become industrialized by the end of the 1930s. Agriculture, which had been exploited to finance the industrialization drive, continued to show poor returns throughout the decade.

The Purges

The complete subjugation of the party to Stalin, its leader, paralleled the subordination of industry and agriculture to the state. Stalin had assured his preeminent position by squelching Bukharin and the "right-wing deviationists" in 1929 and 1930. To secure his absolute control over the party, however, Stalin began to purge leaders and rank-and-file members whose loyalty he doubted.

Stalin's purges began in December 1934, when Sergey Kirov, a popular Leningrad party chief who advocated a moderate policy toward the peasants, was assassinated. Although details remain murky, many Western historians believe that Stalin instigated the murder to rid himself of a potential opponent. In any event, in the resultant mass purge of the local Leningrad party, thousands were deported to camps in Siberia. Zinov'yev and Kamenev, Stalin's former political partners, received prison sentences for their alleged role in Kirov's murder. At the same time, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Narodnyy komissariat vnutrennikh del--NKVD), the secret police agency that was heir to the Cheka of the early 1920s, stepped up surveillance through its agents and informers and claimed to uncover anti-Soviet conspiracies among prominent long-term party members. At three publicized show trials held in Moscow between 1936 and 1938, dozens of these Old Bolsheviks, including Zinov'yev, Kamenev, and Bukharin, confessed to improbable crimes against the Soviet state. Their confessions were quickly followed by execution. (The last of Stalin's old enemies, Trotsky, who supposedly had masterminded the conspiracies against Stalin from abroad, was murdered in Mexico in 1940, presumably by the NKVD.) Coincident with the show trials of the original leadership of the party, unpublicized purges swept through the ranks of younger leaders in party, government, industrial management, and cultural affairs. Party purges in the non-Russian republics were particularly severe. The Yezhovshchina ("era of Yezhov," named for NKVD chief Nikolay Yezhov) ravaged the military as well, leading to the execution or incarceration of about half the officer corps. The secret police also terrorized the general populace, with untold numbers of common people punished after spurious accusations. By the time the purges subsided in 1938, millions of Soviet leaders, officials, and other citizens had been executed, imprisoned, or exiled.

The reasons for the period of widespread purges, which became known as the Great Terror, remain unclear. Western historians variously hypothesize that Stalin created the terror out of a desire to goad the population to carry out his intensive modernization program, or to atomize society to preclude dissent, or simply out of brutal paranoia. Whatever the causes, the purges must be viewed as having weakened the Soviet state.

In 1936, just as the Great Terror was intensifying, Stalin approved a new Soviet constitution to replace that of 1924. Hailed as "the most democratic constitution in the world," the 1936 document stipulated free and secret elections based on universal suffrage and guaranteed the citizenry a range of civil and economic rights. But in practice the freedoms implied by these rights were denied by provisions elsewhere in the constitution that indicated that the basic structure of Soviet society could not be changed and that the party retained all political power.

The power of the party, in turn, now was concentrated in the persons of Stalin and the members of his handpicked Politburo. As if to symbolize the lack of influence of the party rank and file, party congresses were convened less and less frequently. State power, far from "withering away" after the revolution as Karl Marx had prescribed, instead grew. With Stalin consciously building what critics would later describe as a cult of personality, the reverence accorded him in Soviet society gradually eclipsed that given to Lenin.

Mobilization of Society

Concomitant with industrialization and collectivization, society also experienced wide-ranging regimentation. Collective enterprises replaced individualistic efforts across the board. Not only did the regime abolish private farms and businesses, but it collectivized scientific and literary endeavors as well. As the 1930s progressed, the revolutionary experimentation that had characterized many facets of cultural and social life gave way to conservative norms.

Considerations of order and discipline dominated social policy, which became an instrument of the modernization effort. Workers came under strict labor codes demanding punctuality and discipline, and labor unions served as extensions of the industrial ministries. At the same time, higher pay and privileges accrued to productive workers and labor brigades. To provide greater social stability, the state aimed to strengthen the family by restricting divorce and abolishing abortion.

Literature and the arts came under direct party control during the 1930s, with mandatory membership in unions of writers, musicians, and other artists entailing adherence to established standards. After 1934 the party dictated that creative works had to express socialistic spirit through traditional forms. This officially sanctioned doctrine, called "socialist realism," applied to all fields of art. The state repressed works that were stylistically innovative or lacked appropriate content.

The party also subjected science and the liberal arts to its scrutiny. Development of scientific theory in a number of fields had to be based upon the party's understanding of the Marxist dialectic, which derailed serious research in certain disciplines. The party took a more active role in directing work in the social sciences. In the writing of history, the orthodox Marxist interpretation employed in the late 1920s was modified to include nationalistic themes and to stress the role of great leaders to create legitimacy for Stalin's dictatorship.

Education returned to traditional forms as the party discarded the experimental programs of Lunacharskiy after 1929. Admission procedures underwent modification: candidates for higher education now were selected on the basis of their academic records rather than their class origins. Religion suffered from a state policy of increased repression, starting with the closure of numerous churches in 1929. Persecution of clergy was particularly severe during the purges of the late 1930s, when many of the faithful went underground (see The Russian Orthodox Church, ch. 4).

Foreign Policy, 1928-39

Soviet foreign policy underwent a series of changes during the first decade of Stalin's rule. Soon after assuming control of the party, Stalin oversaw a radicalization of Soviet foreign policy that paralleled the severity of his remaking of domestic policy. To heighten the urgency of his demands for moderniza-tion, Stalin portrayed the Western powers, particularly France, as warmongers eager to attack the Soviet Union. The Great Depression, which seemingly threatened to destroy world capitalism in the early 1930s, provided ideological justification for the diplomatic self-isolation practiced by the Soviet Union in that period. To aid the triumph of communism, Stalin resolved to weaken the moderate social democratic parties of Europe, which seemed to be the communists' rivals for support among the working classes of the Western world.

Conversely, the Comintern ordered the Communist Party of Germany to aid the anti-Soviet National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) in its bid for power, in the hopes that a Nazi regime would exacerbate social tensions and produce conditions that would lead to a communist revolution in Germany. In pursuing this policy, Stalin thus shared responsibility for Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 and its tragic consequences for the Soviet Union and the rest of the world.

The dynamics of Soviet foreign relations changed drastically after Stalin recognized the danger posed by Nazi Germany. From 1934 through 1937, the Soviet Union tried to restrain German militarism by building coalitions hostile to fascism. In the international communist movement, the Comintern adopted the "popular front" policy of cooperation with socialists and liberals against fascism, thus reversing its line of the early 1930s. In 1934 the Soviet Union joined the League of Nations, where Maksim Litvinov, the Soviet commissar of foreign affairs, advocated disarmament and collective security against fascist aggression. In 1935 the Soviet Union formed defensive military alliances with France and Czechoslovakia, and from 1936 to 1939 it gave assistance to antifascists in the Spanish Civil War. The menace of fascist militarism to the Soviet Union increased when Germany and Japan (which already posed a substantial threat to the Soviet Far East) signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1936. But the West proved unwilling to counter German provocative behavior, and after France and Britain acceded to Hitler's demands for Czechoslovak territory at Munich in 1938, Stalin abandoned his efforts to forge a collective security agreement with the West.

Convinced now that the West would not fight Hitler, Stalin decided to come to an understanding with Germany. Signaling a shift in foreign policy, Vyacheslav Molotov, Stalin's loyal assistant, replaced Litvinov, who was Jewish, as commissar of foreign affairs in May 1939. Hitler, who had decided to attack Poland despite the guarantees of Britain and France to defend that country, soon responded to the changed Soviet stance. While Britain and France dilatorily attempted to induce the Soviet Union to join them in pledging to protect Poland, the Soviet Union and Germany engaged in intense negotiations. The product of the talks between the former ideological foes--the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) of August 23, 1939--shocked the world. The open provisions of the agreement pledged absolute neutrality in the event one of the parties should become involved in war, while a secret protocol partitioned Poland between the parties and assigned Romanian territory as well as Estonia and Latvia (and later Lithuania) to the Soviet sphere of influence. With his eastern flank thus secured, Hitler began the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. World War II had begun.


St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow

1554 to 1560: Ivan the Terrible erected the exuberant St. Basil's Cathedral just outside the Kremlin gates in Moscow.

The reign of Ivan IV (the Terrible) brought a brief resurgence of interest in traditional Russian styles. To honor Russia's victory over the Tatars at Kazan, the legendary Ivan the Terrible erected the exuberant St. Basil's Cathedral just outside the Kremlin gates in Moscow. Completed in 1560, St. Basil's is a carnival of painted onion domes in the most expressive of Russo-Byzantine traditions. It is said that Ivan the Terrible had the architects blinded so that they could never again design a building so beautiful.

St. Basil's Cathedral is also known as the Cathedral of the Protection of the Mother of God.

After the reign of Ivan IV, architecture in Russia borrowed more and more from European rather than Eastern styles.


Cuisine from the time of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great

In the period of Peter and Catherine noble people began to adopt the culinary traditions of Northern Europe. Wealthy people at the beginning of 18th century brought cooks and chefs from Germany, Holland and Austria to Russia. Later, during the time of Catherine II, they brought in chefs from France and sometimes even England (hey, but wait a minute, isn't English food supposed to be terrible?). During this period, new dishes prepared from ground meat (rissoles, baked puddings, pates, beef-rolls), thick soups (from milk or vegetables) and different desserts were introduced in St. Petersburg and Moscow straight from Paris.

During this period, Russians adopted some Western European cold appetizers into the cuisine. For example, German sandwiches, butter, French and Dutch cheeses (formerly unknown in Russia) were combined with traditional Russian appetizers such as meat-jelly, ham, cold boiled pork, caviar and salted red fish and used as starters.


A History of Russia in a Massive Photo Archive

Prepare to get swept away in a stream of over 150 years of photographs capturing all sorts of scenes of Russian life. Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum and Yandex — the country’s largest search engine — recently joined forces to launch an online photo bank that is ridiculously massive, bringing together photographs not only from museums and public archives but also from personal collections across the world’s largest nation. The portal, simply called “The History of Russia,” received support from the Ministry of Culture and the Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications and is intended to acquaint visitors with Russian history through visuals. It is written in Russian, but you don’t necessarily have to read the language to navigate it, especially if your browser is able to translate the texts.

William Carrick, from ‘Russian Types’ (1860) (photo courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum) (click to enlarge)

More than 40 institutions and collections are currently involved, including the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the State Literary Museum, the National Library of Russia, and the Serpukhov History and Art Museum (now home to a famous feline). In the wrong hands, such a website could easily exist as a huge photo dump, but the over 80,000 photographs (a number that is steadily growing) is well organized and easily searchable. If you speak Russian, you can simply type in a search otherwise, a timeline allows you to browse by date, a map enables location-based searches, and preset categories filter the images by theme. These may be as broad as “architecture” and “art” or as specific as my two favorites, “dogs” and “cemeteries.” Institutions and individual users can also create their own themed virtual exhibitions for others to explore.

According to a release, many of the photographs are published here for the first time, partly because the portal invites users to upload, describe, and tag images from personal archives. It has the feel of a museum collection website in the sense that most of the photographs uploaded by institutions arrive with their proper dates, titles, photographers, locations, and information about rights holders but interestingly, it also serves as a public forum. Each photo has a comments section, where I’ve come across people having conversations about the history of a certain photograph or discussing a particular photographic technique.

While “The History of Russia” is aimed at Russians, anyone can join the online dialogue or upload a relevant photograph: you only need to register with a valid email address. Or, simply scroll through the pages and take in all the decades upon decades of family dinners, studio portrait sessions, Soviet-era architecture, and much, much more.

Leo Tolstoy reading in the circle of relatives and friends in Yasnaya Polyana, taken by an unknown photographer in 1887 (photo courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum)

Scene from a funeral by an unknown photographer (ca 1890–1909) (photo courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum)

Group portrait of students (ca 1890–1909) (photo courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum)

Peter Pavlov, “The Tsar Bell” (1890–1909) (photo courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum)

Unknown photographer, “Konstantin Varlamov” (ca 1890–1909) (image courtesy Moscow’s Multimedia Art Museum)

Mark Redkin, “Removing the plaque ‘Adolf Hitler Street’” (1944) (photo courtesy Fotosoyuz Agency)

Scene from the St. Petersburg School of the Deaf by an unknown photographer (1908) (photo courtesy Russian State Library)

An expedition team chipping snow off a tent in Greenland, taken by an unknown photographer in 1938 (photo courtesy Arctic and Antarctic Museum)

Mark Markov-Grinberg, “Demobilized women soldiers sent their home” (1945) (photo courtesy FotoSoyuz Agency)

Photographs submitted by Russian citizens: at left, portrait of Sophia Lyudvigovna Podobedova (1910) at right, 1900–1915 photo from the archive of Vadim Stolyarov


Vaata videot: Rasked avariid venemaal (Juuli 2022).


Kommentaarid:

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  2. Jacobe

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  3. Gardalabar

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